This chapter discusses the most important human resource management theory related to the satisfaction and motivation of employees in the orgainzation. It also includes definition and concept of motivation, importance of motivation, motivation theories and satisfaction and importance of employee satisfaction as a literature review.
2.1 Definition and concept of motivation
Many researchers have developed the concept of motivation based on the existing knowledge. Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits,controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal.(Encyclopedia) . Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. (BusinessDictionary.com). Motivation is the arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour. Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to persue a certain course of action. (Daft, 2008).
2.2 Importance of motivation
In any organization, the greatest untapped resource, and the most expensive, is its people The greatest potential for growth, productivity, performance, achievement, and profitability lies within the skills and abilities of the average person.Motivation is an essential factor for the development of employees of any organization.According to theories, by removing the obstacles that stop people from motivating enhances motivation.Understanding and appreciating the influency effect of Herzberg dual factor of motivation on employees job satisfaction helps the organization to increase morale, effectiveness and productivity among the employees.
The best way to satisfy customers in service business is by viewing employees as internal customers and by understanding and meeting employees needs, wants, expectations and concerns their levels of satisfaction will lead to better quality service to external customers.
2.3 Motivation Theory
Motivation theories have been examined to understand different motivators. These theories can be implemented to the company's human resource policies to get the best out of the employees.The process of motivation really starts with someone recognition an understand need. Then a goal is established to be reached and that way to satisfy need. As the needs of individuals differ a lot, it is important to concentrate carefully on the attachment of goals and incentives given when goals are accomplished.
There are content theories, process theories and reinforcement theories which can dominate employee motivation.The literature review will be discussed with reference to factors of Herzberg's theory of motivation, namely, hygiene and motivation factors and how these factors could influence satisfaction of employees.In this paper, Herzberg's theory of motivation will be utilized as the theoretical framework .Then employees satisfaction on the motivational factors provided by the chosen organization is analyzed as analytical portion of this study.
2.3.1 Two-Factor Theory
The two-factor theory is developed by the psycologist, Federick Herzberg in 1959.It follows Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs of particular motivational theory. Herzberg did the survey about 200 accountants and engineers during 1950s. Herzberg found out that there are two different things about job related factors lead to extreme satisfaction of the job and extreme dissatisfaction of the job. The factors that need to be present to show extreme dissatisfaction is called hygiene factors and motivational factors contribute a great deal of satisfaction in the work place.According to Herzberg, hygiene factors can eliminate dissatisfaction and motivational factors can lead satisfaction....
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