Emissions in the Transport Industry

Topics: Kyoto Protocol, Global warming, Greenhouse gas Pages: 12 (4174 words) Published: June 5, 2013
Comparison of Emissions
on the Different Transport Modes.
By Barbara Addo and Olga Rudnyeva
Supervised by
Prof. Dr. Hansjochen Ehmer

November, 2012

Structure of the Paper

List of Abbreviations3
1Definition of Emission6
1.1Emissions in Road Transport6
1.2Emission in the Sea Industry7
Source: International Maritime Organization8
1.3Emissions in Air Transport9
1.4Emissions in Rail Industry9
2Impacts of Emissions and Regulation10
2.1Effects of Emissions10
3EU Regulations on Emissions in the transport Industry11
3.1Environmental sustainability and transport14

List of Abbreviations
CO – Carbon Monoxide
CO2 – Carbon Dioxide
EETS – European Electronic Toll Service
ETS – Emission Trading Scheme
EU – European Union
GH – Greenhouse
GHG – Green House Gas
HC – Hydrocarbons
HC/VOC – Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds
ICAO – International Civil Aviation Organization
IMO – International Maritime Organization
NO – Nitrogen Oxides
NO2 – Nitrogen Dioxide
OECD – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development RSP – Respirable Suspended Particles
SD – Sulphur Dioxide

Table of Figures
Figure 1. Spills in the Sea Transport
Figure 2 .Contribution of Transport Sector to Total Emissions * Introduction
The Transportation sector is increasingly being linked to environmental problems. The increase in demand for safe, faster and reliable transport has resulted in growing levels of motorization and congestion. The increase in transport activities and environmental problems can be said to be highly correlated, thus the higher the level of concentration of transport activities in a particular place, the higher the level of environmental impact being felt by the community. This can particularly be seen in cases of large transport terminals such as ports, rail yards and airports. In Europe, Transport is responsible for around a quarter of EU greenhouse gas emissions making it the second biggest greenhouse gas emitting sector after energy.

Definition of Emission
Emission is the discharge of polluting elements into the environment by Residential, Commercial and Industrial facilities. These elements may include noise, heat, gas radiation and waste products which can have grave effects on the environment into which they are emitted. This paper will focus on the impact of road, rail and air transport on the environment. Emissions in Road Transport

The road transport activities contribute at different geographical scales to environmental problems, ranging from local (noise and CO emissions) to global (climate change), not forgetting continental / national / regional problems. Road transport emissions are related to CO, HC/VOC and NO or NO2.The most common of these emissions is CO and CO2. CO is often present near major traffic intensive arterials, notably in urban areas. CO is a poisonous gas. When inhaled, it combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, preventing absorption of oxygen and resulting in asphyxiation. On the other hand CO2 is a harmless gas and an essential element of photosynthesis. Although limited concentrations of CO2 have no effects on human beings, high concentrations (5000 ppm) may be harmful by causing breathing disorders. Growing quantities of CO2 in the atmosphere are assumed to be linked with climate change. HC/VOC HC is a group of chemical compound composed of carbon and hydrogen. When in a gaseous form, HC are called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Several HC and VOC are heavy gazes. They are mostly the result of the incomplete combustion of gasoline or by-products of the petrochemical industry. Transportation accounts from 40 to 50% of total emissions of HC/VOC. They can be emitted by incomplete combustion (70%), during refueling (10%) or by evaporation from storage units (20%), particularly gas tanks. For instance, a car parked overnight during...

References: Höpfner, U., Lambrecht, U. (2005) Emissions and air quality in urban areas in Germany, An actual survey. http://www.ifeu.de/verkehrundumwelt/pdf/Hoepfner(2005)_Emissions_and_Air_Quality_in_urban_areas_of_germany.pdf
Kågeson, P
Rodrigue, J-P., Comtois, C., and Slack, B. (2009), The Geography of Transport Systems. New York: Routledge
White Paper on Transport (2011), Roadmap to a single european transport area — towards a competitive and resource-efficient transport system
[ 2 ]. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Claude Comtois and Brian Slack (2009)
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[ 6 ]. D. Banister, D. Stead, 2000
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[ 13 ]. D. Banister, D. Stead, 2000
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[ 15 ]. White Paper — Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area — Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system, 2007
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