Electronics

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Topics: Atom
The Bohr Model
An atom* is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element. Each of the known 118 elements has atoms that are different from the atoms of all other elements. This gives each element a unique atomic structure. According to the classical Bohr model, atoms have a planetary type of structure that consists of a central nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons, as illustrated in Figure 1–1. The nucleusconsists of positively charged particles called protonsand uncharged particles called neutrons.The basic particles of negative charge are called electrons.
Each type of atom has a certain number of electrons and protons that distinguishes it from the atoms of all other elements. For example, the simplest atom is that of hydrogen, which has one proton and one electron, as shown in Figure 1–2(a). As another example, the helium atom, shown in Figure 1–2(b), has two protons and two neutrons in the nucleus and two electrons orbiting the nucleus.
Atomic Number
All elements are arranged in the periodic table of the elements in order according to their atomic number. The atomic numberequals the number of protons in the nucleus, which is the same as the number of electrons in an electrically balanced (neutral) atom. For example, hydrogen has an atomic number of 1 and helium has an atomic number of 2. In their normal
(or neutral) state, all atoms of a given element have the same number of electrons as protons; the positive charges cancel the negative charges, and the atom has a net charge of zero.
*All bold terms are in the end-of-book glossary. The bold terms in color are key terms and are also defined at the end of the chapter.
1–1 THEATOM
All matter is composed of atoms; all atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons except normal hydrogen, which does not have a neutron. Each element in the periodic table has a unique atomic structure, and all atoms within a given element have the same number of

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