Process used: The key process of electrolysis is the interchange of atoms and ions by the removal or addition of electrons from the external circuit. The desired products of electrolysis are often in a different physical state from the electrolyte and can be removed by some physical processes. For example, in the electrolysis of brine to produce hydrogen and chlorine, the products are gaseous. These gaseous products bubble from the electrolyte and are collected 2 NaCl + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 + Cl2
A liquid containing mobile ions (electrolyte) is produced by: Solvation or reaction of an ionic compound with a solvent (such as water) to produce mobile ions. An ionic compound is fused by heating An electrical potential is applied across a pair of electrodes immersed in the electrolyte. Each electrode attracts ions that are of the opposite charge. Positively charged ions (cations) move towards the electron-providing (negative) cathode. Negatively charged ions (anions) move towards the electron-extracting (positive) anode. In this process electrons are either absorbed or released. Neutral atoms gain or lose electrons and become charged ions that then pass into the electrolyte. The formation of uncharged atoms from ions is called discharging. When an ion gains or loses enough electrons to become uncharged (neutral) atoms, the newly formed atoms separate from the electrolyte. Positive metal ions like Cu++ deposit onto the cathode in a layer. The terms for this are electroplating electrowinning and electrorefining. When an ion gains or loses electrons without becoming neutral, its electronic charge is altered in the process. In chemistry the loss of electrons is called oxidation while electron gain is called reduction. The first battery was created in 1799 by Alessandro Volta . Today batteries provide the power for an amazing variety of devices, everything from flashlights to robots, computers, satellites and cars. Inventors and researchers...
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