Effectiveness of leaves extracts on the mortality of aphids habituated on yard long beans

Topics: Neem, Aphid, Fruit Pages: 14 (2217 words) Published: October 15, 2014
Introduction of the Study

This chapter will consist of five parts; (1) Background of the study, (2) Statement of the Problem and Hypotheses, (3) Significance of the Study, (4) Definition of Terms and (5) Delimitation of the Study. Part One, Background and Conceptual Framework, will present the reason for choosing the problem, will present the background and basis of conducting this study, and the variables that are associated with the effect of the different household waste. Part Two, Statement of the Problem and Hypothesis, will present the general and specific objectives of the study that will describe the purposes for conducting the study and will enumerate the hypotheses to be tested. Part Three, Significance of the Study, will elaborate the benefits that will derive from the future findings of the study and the persons who will benefit from them. Part Four, Definition of Terms, will present the conceptual and operational definition of key terms and the variables that will use in the study. Part Five, Scope and Delimitation of the Study, will specify the limitation as well as the boundaries of the research in terms of the variables, materials and statistical tools that will be used in the study. Background of the Study

Farming is one of the habits that people who love plants do. For some it becomes a source of income and for our country, the Philippines, which most of 7,107 island where mostly fertile lands, is the main source of living. However, several problems about plants and insects relationships become one of the concerns of our farmers. One of them is the infestation of aphids. It might be quite sound so simple but this problem is so serious and alarming that it needs immediate response.

Aphids are small insects that feed on plant juices, attacking leaves, stems, buds, flowers, fruit, and/or roots, depending on species. Most especially like succulent or new growth. Some, such as the green peach aphid, feed on a variety of plants, while others, such as the rosy apple aphid, focus on one or just a few plant hosts. (The Old Farmers Almanac, 2014)

Plants exhibiting aphid damage can have a variety of symptoms, such as decreased growth rates, mottled leaves, yellowing, stunted growth, curled leaves, browning, wilting, low yields and death. The removal of sap creates a lack of vigour in the plant, and aphid saliva is toxic to plants. Aphids frequently transmit disease-causing organisms like plant viruses to their hosts. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphid)

This situation if not controlled can greatly affect the production of crop yields especially on vegetables which could decline its supply and increase its price leaving the consumers an expensive vegetable meals.

One of the plants that aphids love to hang out in the farm is on the yard-long beans or commonly known to us as sitaw. They are a good source of protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, iron, phosphorus, and potassium, and a very good source for vitamin C, folate, magnesium, and manganese. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigna_unguiculata_subsp._sesquipedalis) They are usually used as one of the ingredients in Sinigang and kare-kare dishes. But most Filipinos are fond of adobong sitaw menu. On the other hand, a lot of people today were conscious and being practical in looking for an alternative sources in maintaining healthy food crops and productivity that can sustain the everyday living and nutritional value given by those plants. Many farmers will not use synthetic pesticides, and some consumers will only buy organic produce. Mass production farms rely on synthetic pesticides, however, because they are cheaper than organic ones. When farmers used pesticides such as DDT and malathion, there was little understanding of how dangerous and long-lasting these chemicals are. It was only later that the degree to which these pesticides remain...
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