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Effect of Smoking

By wanarif22 Sep 26, 2011 1342 Words
INTRODUCTION

Smoking is a practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco or cannabis, is burned and the smoke is tasted or inhaled. This is primarily practised as a route of administration for recreational drug use, as combustion releases the active substances in drugs such as nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. The most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes, primarily industrially manufactured but also hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Tobacco smoking is today by far the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over one billion people in the majority of all human societies.
Smoking-related diseases are some of the biggest killers in the world today and are cited as one of the biggest causes of premature death in industrialized countries In the United States about 500,000 deaths per year are attributed to smoking-related diseases and a recent study estimated that as much as 1/3 of China's male population will have significantly shortened life-spans due to smoking. It has been suggested that smoking-related disease kills one half of all long term smokers but these diseases may also be contracted by non-smokers. A 2007 report states that about 4.9 million people worldwide each year die as a result of smoking. Among the diseases that can be caused by smoking are vascular stenosis, lung cancer, heart attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains nicotine, which is highly addictive. Like heroin or other addictive drugs, the body and mind quickly become so used to the nicotine in cigarettes that a person needs to have it just to feel normal. People start smoking for a variety of different reasons. Some think it looks cool. Others start because their family members or friends smoke. Statistics show that about 9 out of 10 tobacco user start before they're 18 years old. Most adults who started smoking in their teens never expected to become addicted. That's why people say it's just so much easier to not start smoking at all.

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking are so debilitating that the immediate cessation of the habit is always the first step of any program to improve one's health and even more important than vitamins, diet or exercise. The smokers must always carry a pack of cigarettes and lighter your pockets bulge and there's less space in your purse, smelly breath, smelly house, smelly clothes, messy rugs and furniture. Smokers give a bad influence on kids and they held in low esteem by your kids and your friends even your smoking friends. Inside of your home and auto windows need cleaning more often because of cigarette smoke.

There are many reasons why smoker start to smoke. Children whose parents smoke are twice as likely to start compared to those with non-smoking parents. In addition, a study by the World Health Organization found that the 11 to 15 year olds who were most likely to be smokers were lonely, had difficulty talking to parents, had problems at school and had started drinking alcohol.

Therefore, in this research the readers will know the key factors that will reveal the cause of a smoker to smoke. In addition, readers are also able to know the contents in cigarette that can cause serious problems to the body and it also can hurt the people around.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Smoking is an offence as we know smoking is a habit that usually done by people at present and many are not aware that smoking can cause a very bad effect on the body. Therefore, university students are often exposed to immoral behaviour and not an exception among UMP students. Furthermore, smoking causes widespread permanent destruction of the tiny air sacs (alveoli) and narrowing of small blood vessels in the lungs, decreasing the oxygen supply, requiring a higher blood pressure, thus causing extensive circulatory problems and premature heart attacks. Smokers have difficulty running and exercising. If someone who smokes, it will release combustion gases resulting from cigarette and tobacco. Gas produced will affect each of smell it. The smoker needs to spend money to buy cigarettes, matches, lighters, holders, ashtrays, or to spend a dime a mile for that special trip to the store. Just the cigarettes alone amount to an average of RM750 per year, after taxes - wasted. Add another RM750 if the spouse smokes.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The study aim is to know the main factors that cause the problem of smoking among UMP students. Students at university are not allowed to smoke while being a student. In response to this issue, appropriate measures should be taken to reduce the problem of smoking among student. The purposes of this research are as follows: * To identify the factor that causes the smokers to smoke. * To discover the effect of the smoking problem.

* To provide recommendation on how to reduce the problem of smoking among UMP students.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

From research that carried out there are many interests and benefits. The important thing of study on population of smokers among ump students is considerable minimization in the risk involved due to cancer, heart disease and other deadly diseases. Beside that, the non-smoker will gain resistance from cough, cold and flu. Carbon monoxide (CO) level in your blood will minimize and there will be considerable increment of oxygen level.

The problem of smoking among the UMP students can be solved by organizing anti-smoking campaign. In the campaign, student will be exposed to content that is found in cigarettes. In addition, student will also be exposed to the harmful effect of smoking on the body and the environment. Another problem of smoking among student can be overcome by establishing fines and penalties for student who smokes. For example if a student is found smoking in the campus, student will be subject to penalty and be deferred of the semester. In this way the student would feel afraid to commit offenses smoking.

RESEARCH QUESTION

1) What is the factor that causes the smokers to smoke?

2) What the effects of smoking will face by smokers?

3) What are the recommendations on how to reduce the problems of smocking among UMP students?

Scope of Study

Smoking status was established in accordance with WHO criteria, smokers were subjects who, at the time of the study, smoked either daily (at least 1 cigarette per day) or occasionally (1 cigarette per day). Non-smokers included subjects who, at the time of the survey, did not smoke, such as ex-smokers and never-smokers. Ex-smokers were formerly smokers, but currently did not smoke at all; never-smokers did not smoke at all or had smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, but at the time and for the month before the survey they were not smoking.

A cross-sectional research was conducted at University Malaysia Pahang, an academic institution during the semester 1 of 2010/2011. The university consists of 8 faculties, but this research only involves students from Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FKM) at Campus Pekan. Only 45 students (respondents) from FKM were enrolled for this research. All respondents were selected to be surveyed, were asked to provide the total enrollment of undergraduate students.

Respondents were asked about the average number of cigarettes smoked daily and about the age of initiation as well as about their attempts to quit, if any. Data on the smoking status of parents and friends, beliefs about smoking, awareness of harmfulness of smoking, frequency of infections of the upper respiratory tract in the last 12 months and possible hospitalization due to these, cough, frequency of physical exercise, and decrease in physical fitness were also collected.

The anonymous questionnaire was developed by the authors and pretested on a group of students prior to initiation of the survey and revised. Demographic characteristics included age, sex, height, and weight with additional information regarding academic year/semester.

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