Edexcel Psychology Unit 1 and 2 Revision

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Psychology Revision | Unit 1 and Unit 2 | | | Damien Edwards | | | |

Cognitive Approach
Craik and Tulving (1975)
Aim – To test the Levels of Processing theory, and see if words processed semantically had better recall than words processed phonetically or structurally.
Results – 17% recall for structural, 36% for phonetic and 65% for semantic processing.
Conclusion – The deeper the level of processing, the stronger the memory, while shallow processing produces weak memory, supporting the Level of Processing theory of memory.
Godden and Baddeley (1975)
Aim – To see if forgetting is caused by the change of context (environment) from when you learnt a list of words to that of recalling the words.
Results – Recall was about 50% higher when it took place in the same environment as learning. 40% more words were forgotten if recall was in a different environment from where it was learned.
Conclusion – That environment/context does act as a cue for recall, and backs up the Cue Dependent Theory of Forgetting; that we forget more readily if we do not have contextual cues.
Key Issue: Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony
It is a key issue because anyone can be stopped and questioned by the police. Judges and jury tend to believe what an eyewitness says as being truthful, and believe eyewitness testimonies over forensic evidence, mainly because scientific evidence can be difficult to understand. The cue dependency theory says that forgetting can occur when the person is recalling a memory in a different state or context than when they learnt it. This therefore means that details may be forgotten when it comes to recalling information, such as a car accident, as the person will be in a different environment, and a different mental and emotional state. Cognitive interviewing technique is used by police to try and get the eyewitness into the same state and context as when they witnessed the incident. This has been shown to improve their memory, but

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