New Era University
College of Arts & Sciences
Lesson on LAND REFORM
Land Reform – refers to the full range of measures that maybe taken to improve or remedy the defects in the relations among men with respect to their rights in Land.
– Integrated set of measures designed to eliminate obstacles to economic and social development arising out of defects in the Agrarian structure. Agrarian Structure (also known as structural reform) is defined as a complex set of relationship within the agricultural sector between Tenure Structure, Production Structure, and Structure of Supporting services.
1. Land Tenure Structure – is a concept which refers to one or more types of Land Tenure Systems regulating the rights to ownership, control and usage of Land and the duties accompanying such rights. 2. Production Structure – is a concept which relates to the nature, type and modus operandi as well as the actual process of production or farm operation. 3. Structure of Supporting Services – is a concept which involves matters like credit, marketing, the supplying of agricultural requisites, processing, storage and other technical assistance in so far as they have some immediate bearing on reforms of tenure and production structures.
Agrarian Reform – (wider than Land Reform) the term comprises not only Land Reform but also the reform and development of complimentary institutional framework. It encompasses all programs designed to bring about improvement in all the institutions surrounding farm life. It is concerned not only with the farmer and the land he tills but also with the community he lives in.
Philippine Agrarian Structures
The pattern of land ownership in the Phils. Has been historically the major cause of social unrest.
– by 1960, the problem of tenancy was far from being solved. Some 41% of all farms were cultivated by tenants as compared to 37% in 1948. – Tenancy is still deeply ingrained in our agrarian structure despite numerous land reform attempts of the government. – The problem was even more explosive in the rice – growing, the rate of tenancy was higher (31% in 1971). – These figures explain why the HUK influenced was strongest in Central Luzon and Cagayan Valley. It even resulted to: a. social time bomb in Negros Occidental and
b. Sakdalista rebellion in Cabuyao Laguna
Evils of Landlordism
1. Inquilinato System – under this system, the tenant bore all the risks. The absentee landlord merely waited for the harvest and collected annual rent. 2. Kasama System – the tenant usually furnished the land, farm tools, seeds and expenses for transplanting and harvesting. Although the sharing was regulated by la, abuses by the Land Lord continued unabated because of the weaker position of the tenants. 3. Takipan System – the tenant paid back two cavans of palay for every cavan that he borrowed. The rate of 100%. 4. Talindua and Terciahan – under the former, the rate of interest was 50%, under the latter, 33% or 1/3. If the Loan had been made in cash and was payable in kind, the scheme called for a 50-75% interest. 5. Latifundia – was the wrong kind of paternalism that it bred in some regions particularly in the Western Visayas. Under this system, the tenant goes to the Landlord for money when someone in the family died nor got married, birth, for school fees, harvest is damaged etc.
• Landlordism was often an unjust and inequitable system. But, even more, it was an obstacle to economic progress, because, our farmers were hindered from rising agricultural productivity, a must for long-run growth.
LAWS OF AGRARIAN REFORM
1. P.D. 27 –
law to emancipate the farmer from the bandage of soil - first law on Agrarian Reform (Oct. 21, 1972) 2. R.A. 1199 –
Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 (Amended by R.A. 2263) 3. R.A. 1400 –
Land Reform Act of 1955
4. R.A. 3844 –...
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