“Child labour was customary throughout the history of family agriculture” (Minge-Kalman). This statement is the theme behind both journals and how the exploitation of child labours increased the production in the factories. The comparison of the two articles chosen both touch on the same topic, however they view two different opinions. The first journal written by Wanda Minge-Kalman set more emphasis on the education movement that transpired from the Industrial Revolution. Whereas the second, by Nicola Verdon touches more on the economics behind industrialism and the employment role that women and children held in technology and agriculture fields and their wages that they held in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.
Minge-Kalman approaches her topic with fantastic information, making it a smooth and very interesting read. Her arguments were clear and she touched on every aspect of early industrialism to later times. Early signs of child labour were seen during this revolution and children were exploited and forced into adulthood far too early. The treatment of children is discussed in great length. The fact that it was believed to be fundamental for children to work in fields and factories, is such an unethical view for today’s standards. “Children were employed in the spinning wheels, hiring themselves out from about nine years of age” (Minge-Kalman). Children were leaving home at very young ages to work as servants in upper class homes. The paper notes that not only were children working at very early ages they were also left alone by their mothers for long periods of time and more than often, most infants were drugged to sleep the day away while her mother worked in the fields and factories. The neglect left the infant mortality rate very high. The author also states that even through slow periods of work, children who left at home with their parents still suffered different ranges of neglect and were cared for with little affection....
Bibliography: Minge-Kalman, Wanda. "The Industrial Revolution and the European Family: The Institutionalization of 'Childhood ' as a Market for Family Labor." Comparative Studies in Society and History (1978): 454-468.
Verdon, Nicola. "The rural labour market in early nineteenth century: women 's and children 's employment, family income, and the 1834 Poor Law Report." Economic History Review (2002): 299-323.
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