Drainage: Lake and East Flowing Rivers

Topics: Lake, Sewage, Drainage system Pages: 7 (2108 words) Published: October 13, 2013
The term “drainage” describes the river system of an area. •The area drained by a single river system is called a “drainage basin” or river basin. •Any higher ground, such as mountain or upland separates two adjoining drainage basins. Such upland is known as a water divide or a watershed. •Depending upon the relief, geological structure and climatic conditions of the area, the streams form different patterns. Drainage Pattern:

Drainage of an area is concerned with the study of main rivers and their tributaries with respect to their size, number, direction of flow, drainage basin, slope of the valley. •A drainage system refers to the origin and development of stream through time. •Drainage pattern means spatial arrangement and form of drainage system in terms of different rock types, geological structure, climatic conditions and denudational history. •1. Trellis Pattern: in this system the tributaries can be seen meeting the main stream at right angles. This exists where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other. •2. Dendritic Patterns (Tree shaped pattern): is the most common and widespread pattern to be found on the earth’s surface. In this pattern, the tributaries come from all directions to meet the main river. Like the branches of a tree the small streams meet larger streams and the larger streams meet the much larger streams, in the end they meet the river. This develops where the river channel follows the slope of the terrain. •3. Parallel Drainage Patterns: comprises numerous rivers which are parallel to each other and follow the regional slope. This pattern is developed on uniformly sloping areas such as coastal plains. •4. Radial Drainage Pattern/Centrifugal Pattern: develops where streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure. Streams which diverge from a central higher point in all directions. Drainage System of India:

On the Basis of origin, two broad drainage systems of India are generally recognized: Drainage System of India
a.The Indus
b.The Ganga
c.The Brahmaputra
a.Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal
i. Mahanadi
ii. Godavari
iii. Krishna
iv. Kaveri
b.Rivers flowing into the Arabian Sea
i. Narmada
ii. Tapi
iii. Sabarmati
iv. Mahi

The Himalayan Rivers & The Peninsular Rivers.
I: The Himalayan Rivers:
• Long courses and Perform erosion and depositional work 1. The Indus Drainage System:
• Comprises of Indus River and its five main tributaries: Chenab, Beas, Sutlej, Ravi, Jhelum • Forms a system of five main rivers after which the state of Punjab is named. They join the Indus at Mithankot in Pakistan. • Indus and its tributaries bring a large volume of water and sediments which make their doabs enormously rich and productive lands. • Originates from the glaciers of the Kailash range in western Tibet near Mansarovar Lake. • Flows west and northwestwards and enters India in J&K. Pierces through Kailash Range forming a Gorge. Several tributaries , the Zaskar, Nubra , Shyok & Hunza join it in Kashmir region • Flows through Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit till finally emerge out of the hills at Attock. Here the river is joined by river Kabul from Afghanistan. The Indus flows southwards across Pakistan to reach Arabian Sea east of Karachi. • With a length of 2900km, is one of the largest rivers of the world. • Sharing of water is regulated by the Indus water treaty signed by India and Pakistan. 2. The Ganga Drainage System:

River system includes Ganga and its tributaries like the...
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