Introduction the Mughal
The Mughal empire established by Babur was vast and extensive in the beginning of the eighteenth century. But by the close of the century, it had shrunk into a few kilometers in and around Delhi. On the whole the decline of the Mughal empire can be attributed to many factors. The process of decay had begun from the time of Aurangzeb and reached its culmination during the rule of his successors. In this , we shall discuss the various causes for the downfall of the Mughal empire. REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Aurangzeb’s responsibility: Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. His predecessors did a lot to win over the loyalty of his subjects, but Aurangzeb being a Fanatic could not tolerate the non-Muslims. He imposed jaziya and forbade the celebrations of Hindu Festivals. He thus lost friendship and loyalty with the Rajputs. His execution of the Sikh guru and his enmity with the Marathas forced them to raise forces against him. His excessive obsession with the Deccan destroyed Mughal army, treasure and also affected his health. Aurangzeb being a Fanatic Sunni Muslim, could not even tolerate the Shias. He laid too much of stress on simplicity and was against singing, dancing and drinking which were common habits of the Muslim nobles. Aurangzeb, thus ‘himself gave a green signal to the forces of decay’. After the death of Aurangzeb, the mighty empire disintegrated into smaller states. Aurangzeb’s Religious Policy:Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. Akbar won over the Hindus by a policy of religious toleration. He had enlisted Hindu warrior tribes, chiefly the Rajputs, as reliable defenders of his throne. On the contrary, Aurangzeb’s intolerance and senseless destruction...
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