Associate Program Material
Answer the following in at least 100 words:
1. Describe the structure of DNA.
DNA really stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a right handed double helix. Nucleotides that mount together by phosphodiester bonds make up DNA. It also contains a spiral strand that is made of phosphate backbone and secure bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine). Cytosine and Thymine are Pyrimidines, while Adenine and Guanine are Purines. All these bases are latched to one another by hydrogen bonding. A::T G::C each represent the number of hydrogen bonds. DNA is our genetic information, composed of genes, and chromosomes. This operation expresses our phenotype and affects our genotype.
2. How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype?
The separation between phenotype and genotype is the knowledge and understanding of an organisms development and heredity. When we talk about the genotype of an organism, it just means the class to which that organism belongs. This is mainly determined by the material that is passed on to the organisms from its parents. The phenotype is the process of determining which class an organism belongs to by the description of physical and behavioral characteristics. The difference of the two is made by the separation of casual pathways that lead to the way to information of organisms between successive generations.
3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait.
Polymers such as DNA and RNA are carry information that is passed from generation to generation. They contain a great amount of linked nucleotides made of sugar, a phosphate and a base. An array of nucleotides in DNA duplicate into a molecule of RNA inside the cell’s nucleus. Before being translated, the RNA navigates its way to the cytoplasm. From the cytoplasm, it is converted in to the specific amino acid sequence of a protein.
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