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Biology 1500

By Chemistry1994 Oct 19, 2014 429 Words
Biology 1500Name:

Chapter 10 Assignment

1. What is Genetics? The study of the way in which an individual’s traits are transmitted from one generation to the next. 2. What is heredity? Heredity is the tendency for traits to be passed from parent to offspring. 3. Why did Gregor Mendel choose garden peas to student for his experiments? Mendel chose to work with the garden pea because several of its characteristics made it easy to work with: many varieties were available, he knew he would have something to count, pea plants are small and convenient, and the reproductive organs are enclosed within the flower. 4. What do you call factors that transmit genetic information? Genes What is an allele? How many alleles make up one gene? Alleles are alternative forms of a factor. Two alleles make up one gene. 5. How many alleles per gene do gametes carry? one

6. What is the difference between homozygous alleles and heterozygous alleles? Homozygous alleles are when the two copies of the factor are the same. If the two copies are different, then they are considered heterozygous. 7. How do we represent dominant alleles in a genetic cross? Recessive alleles? Uppercase letters represent dominant alleles and recessive alleles are represented by lowercase letters. 8. What is the difference between an organism’s genotype and their phenotype? A genotype is the alleles of a gene that determine the appearance an individual receives from their parents. The appearance of an individual is called its phenotype. 9. What is a punnet square used for? The punnet square is used to visualize the possible results from a cross between a true-breeding purple plant and a true-breeding white plant. 10. Solve the following genetic crosses. **Include the genotype and phenotype ratios.

a. Tt x Tt (where T represents tall and t represents short)

T
t
T
TT (25%)
Tt (25%)
t
Tt (25%)
tt (25%)

b. If a true-breeding tall flower is crossed with a true-breeding white flower.
Then ¼ of the flowers will be short.

c. YyTt x YYTT (Where Y represents yellow and y represents green)

YT
Yt
yT
yt
YT
YYTT
YYTt
YyTT
YyTt
Yt
YYTt
YYtt
YyTt
Yytt
yT
YyTT
YYTt
yyTT
yyTt
yt
YyTt
Yytt
yyTt
yytt
75% are yellow or ¾ are yellow.
d. When a red cow is crossed with a white cow all of the offspring are roan. What are the results if a red cow is crossed with a roan bull?

R
r
R
RR (25%)
Rr (25%)
r
Rr (25%)
rr (25%)

25% would be white.

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