Development in Psychology
Childhood and Adolescent Development
Watching children grow is one of life's biggest joys, especially when the children are yours ans you can take certain notices of the milestones that occur from a personal perspective. But one thing people don't often acknowledge are the deep, inter-workings that actually occur during development, such as the psychological processes that take place. In obvious developmental stages such as physical and mental, we can see a lot about children and adolescents – but it is the theories of development that explain the most, and give us better perception and understanding of what goes on during development, even when there are issues.
To begin, one must be aware that there are three different ways in which development occurs; physical, cognitive, and psychosocial. Physical development adheres to development concerning strength, speed, coordination, traits, and other characteristics. Physical appearance and development is determined by the passing of genes from parents to child and “Physical development includes the biological changes evident during puberty and is also concerned with variables related to health and illness” (Mossler, 2011). Physical development also includes the term maturation – which refers to the course of development. Cognitive development involves thinking, language, intelligence, problem solving abilities, memory and eventually the ability to plan for the future. Last but not least, psychosocial development pertains to that of personality, social interaction, understanding of emotion, identity, self-control and other self concepts, like self esteem. Moral behavior and styles of attachment also occurs during this domain of development. It is these three stages that one must consider not only separately, but together as well. There are many theories that are centered around development that looks into how some of these entities play a role in development.
Amid these theories lies the cognitive perspective, which appeals to the thinking process and the way information flows in and out along with the thinking patterns that are involved as well. This perspective also refers to intelligence and that which is contained, as well as that which can be learned – along with when and how. Two theorists who have worked and made notable mentions in the field of the cognitive perspective are Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. It was Piaget who believed that development happens at discontinuous stages. He also believed that “...children learn as a result of the way they interact with and manipulate the world” (Mossler, 2011). Piaget stated that he believed there are four stages of progression, one preparing for the next and that it is biology which rules and predetermines this. Piaget's Stages of Development are that of the sensorimotor stage, from ages of birth to age two, the preoperational stage from ages two to seven, the concrete operations stage from ages seven to twelve, and the formal operations stage, from ages 12 until, and throughout adulthood.
Through this theory, Piaget attempts to map out the milestones by explaining first, the stage he called the sensorimotor stage which covers basic coordination, which can be explained by the connections that happen between the body and the brain. Second, Piaget looks at the preoperational stage which is demonstrated through a child's ability to pretend and play through the imagination. This moves us into the next stage, the concrete operation stage, and within this stage of development, Piaget believes that “...children become able to sort using complex classification systems” (Mossler, 2011). It is in this stage that children also become able to see things from more than one perspective. Lastly, Piaget speaks of the formal operations stage, and this includes abstract thinking, along with the ability experience ideas like love and not only repeat them, but...
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This Journal provides a vivid and creative description as well as important information within the content. It helps guide the understanding of Psychoanalysis through the use of art and imagery as well as the basic points and goals of the Psychoanalytic approach. I used this article to talk about how treatments in mental health situations can be handled as well as diagnosed.
Mossler, R., 2011. Child and Adolescent Development. Bridgepoint Education. San Diego, CA.
I used the text to cover some of the basic information as well as definitions that were used as citations. I mostly used this for defining and explaining purposes. I find it most useful to use as a short hand citation for basic knowledge that needs to be supported.
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This source was used as an example to explain the concept of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and it allowed me to explore the uses of this therapy as well. This article reflected on the ways behavioral type therapy can treat certain mood disorders, as well as drug addiction and other mental issues. There is an extensive explanation on how modifying behavior can be used as a a technique in mental health treatment.
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This is by far, my favorite source, as it has taught me quite a bit of new information on how medical advancements and Psychological treatment can be utilized to treat a wide range of issues through the use of conditioning brain waves. I wanted to use this article as an example of how technology has advanced from ringing a bell, so to say, to using using electromagnetic waves to physically condition the brain.
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