Describe the basic anatomy of the human body affected by assisting and moving

Topics: Skeletal system, Bone, Joint Pages: 5 (1365 words) Published: November 2, 2014
Describe the basic anatomy of the human body affected by assisting and moving The human body is only able to assume it's different posture and maintain its structure due to the skeletal system. The skeletal system is made up of bones which have an outer hard cortical layer and an inner soft trabecular layer made of cancellous bone. Within some long bone is the all important marrow from where all the blood cells originate after maturation. The skeletal system can be divided into 2 groups:

1.Axial skeleton: The bones here include the skull and bones of the vertebrae column. The skull is subdivided into the 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones, while the vertebrae column is made up of the following; 7 cervical bones, 7 thoracic bone, 5 lumbar bones, 5 sacral bones and 4 coccygeal bones (all fused into 1 in the adult life). 2.Appendicular skeleton: The bones here include those of the limbs and limb girdles. The limbs are made up of long and short bones in the upper and lower limbs, while the girdles are made up of the pectoral and pelvic girdles Function of the skeletal system includes:

Shape and support of the human body is all due to our skeletal system. The curvature of the vertebrae column bones plays a major role in our upright posture. So people with bone conditions like osteogenesis imperfecta (genetic malformation) where the skeletal system are poorly formed, the patients are not just prone to fractures but have poorly moulded bones and irregular postures. •The skeletal system is also the site of insertion of muscles and ligaments. Muscles are attached to bones via tendons for example, the distal biceps tendon attaches the bicep muscle to both forearm bones (radius and ulna); while ligaments holds different bones together at a joint, for example ligaments hold the femur and the tibia bones together at the knee joint. Other functions includes:

They help protect vital structures in the human body. For instance, the bones of the skull protects the soft brain, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae column bones. The bones that make up the thoracic cage protect the heart, lungs and great blood vessels, while the pelvic girdle protects the genital and gonadal organs particularly in the female e.g the ovaries and uterus. •Some bones, particularly the long bones have friable structures called the bone marrow. These are sites of blood cell production and maturation. Types and location of bones

Types of bone
Examples of bone
Long bones
Femur, Tibia, Fibula; Humerus, Radius, Ulna
Lower and upper limbs respectively
Short bones
Carpal and Tarsals
Wrist and ankle respectively
Irregular bones
Vertebrae column
Sesamoid bones
Patella and metatarsal
Knee and foot
Flat bones
Ribs, sternum and temporal, parietal, occipital bones
Thorax and cranium

Joints: The meeting point of 2 or more bones is called a joint. Joints are not just made up of bones but also will find; cartilage, ligaments, muscles and a times synovial fluid surrounded by a synovial sac. Joints allow movement of 2 or more bones that make it up. Types of joint: They include

Fibrous joint: These are made up of tough collagen fibres binding bones that make up the joint, for example, sutures in the bones of the cranium and the syndesmosis joint of the ulna and radius bones of the forearm •Cartilaginous joint: These are joints with cartilage binding or connecting the bones that make up the joint, for instance, the coastal cartilage binding the ribs and the sternum in the thoracic cage and the intervertebral disc of the vertebral column. •Synovial joint: These joints have a special feature which is a sac called the synovial sac that houses an oily fluid called the synovial fluid. This reinforces the joint and help prevent waring off at the ends of the bones that make up the joint. The following are types of synovial joints:

Types of synovial joint
Range of movement
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