Etymologically, democracy comes from two Greek words, demos and cratein. Demos means society while cratein means authority. There are many terminological definitions of democracy, one of it is definition is by Henry B. Mayo stating that democracy is a political system showing the public policy determined by representatives audited effectively by the society by having periodic elections based on principles of political similarities in a situation where there is freedom to choose. This means that the government has to accept opinions and critics from the society and no right to interfere with non-formal democracy facilities, also the freedom of speech and media. Democracy has its three roles, to be the government of the people, by the people and for the people; •
A valid government is an approved government that has the support of majority of the people through elections. •
Government’s authority has to be upon the people not from the elite personal and bureaucracy drive. •
Government’s authority has to be established by the basis the people’s needs
Democracy: Norms of Coexistence
There are six norms for a democratic society, which are:
Realization of pluralism
The acknowledgement of differences has to be acted to appreciate different perspectives, shrinking any acts of supremacy of the majorities and tyranny of the minorities. 2.
Having diplomatic and mature citizens who can accept negotiations and compromises socially or politically with no hard feelings on every decisions made 3.
To gain has to be in sync with the goal
It is not enough to apply democracy on elections and such, but there has be morals and with no need for threats and enforcements 4.
Norm of honesty and agreements
Mastering the art of discussions to be honest and transparent, giving a win-win situation for all 5.
Freedom of conscience and egalitarianism
This norm will develop greatly if assumed positively, if not, it will show the potential of being secretive and misunderstanding 6.
Trial and error
Democracy needs experiments and participation of the people in order to have the maximal achievement of this norm Democracy is not a one-day process that can be gained in a short time. It is a long and risky journey to reach the utopia of democracy and patience is the key for achieving it..
History of Democracy
Democracy was first started in Greece on the 6th century B.C until the 4th century A.D. It was once a system where it is the people’s right to decide on politics, however the system was biased because the haves were dominating. Then, in the medieval times, democracy strikes again when Magna Charta was born in England, stating that the King’s authority was limited and the people’s rights were more important than the King’s. The great era of Renaissance, which means rebirth in French, sparked more democracy in Europe. After Renaissance, the Reformation Movement, which is the revolution of religion in the 16th century, revived democracy after its defeat in the medieval times. Martin Luther King was one of the critics fighting against the churches and absolutism, he stated that rationalities are based on the natural law and social contract.. Social contract, defined by Montesquieu, is the main system which guarantees political rights through trias politica, which is the division of authority: legislative, executive and judicative. All this centuries of democracy resurgences is to obtain the welfare state.
Democracy in Indonesia
Known as the Parliamentary Democracy, it is not suitable for Indonesia with its lack of democracy background, giving the chance for political parties to dominate socio-politic life. This furthers the fragmentation of politic derived from stereotypes of ethnics and religion.
Named as Guided Democracy, known for its domination from the president and the outbreak of communism and military role in the national politics. The main flaw of this democracy is the absolutism and...
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