Robbins (1998: 103) states that decisions are choices made from two or more alternatives. Decisions are made as a reaction to a problem. That is, there is a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state requiring consideration of alternative courses of action.
This however requires any person in the position where he/she must make decisions to consider some aspects regarding decision-making. This not only includes relevant information but also the application of knowledge and/or skills to use this information to realize a decision.
Decision making and its processes are well seated in our bones. It is as old as humankind. Making a decision is fundamental and universal: in one way or the other, we do make one. In other words, anything that we do consciously or unconsciously is the result of some decision. As the saying, “He, who fails to decide, decides to fail”. This common saying sums it: the importance of decision-making in our daily lives.
As with individuals, so it is with political organizations – states. States also need to make decisions in order not only to assure their existence but also to promote the welfare of their citizens. States that fail to make decisions also make decisions to fail. Decisions can be strong or weak, good or bad, swift or slow, or short, medium or long term.
The structure of the state or political system depends much on the leadership and decision-making structure. The political system of states can range from being authoritarian, hierarchical, centralized, closed to open, diffuse, decentralized or democratic.
Steinberg (2003) discusses (Moody, 1983:1) that it is often asked if institutions have any rules and regulations regarding the processes by which the required objectives, policies, and strategies are arrived at. For a decision to be arrived at, it has to
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