February 14, 2013
Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. Criminology is the scientific approach to studying criminal behavior (Bryant & Peck, 2007). “Criminology is a multidisciplinary science. In addition to criminology, criminologists hold degrees in a variety of diverse fields, including sociology, criminal justice, political science, psychology, public policy, economics, and the natural sciences” (Siegel, 2010, para 3). History of Criminology
Sir Robert Peel brought the English concept of policing and theories to include the principles of policing. This started the history of policing and criminology in America. This led to early attempts to explain crime scientifically, efforts that began in the late 18th century and continued until the end of the 19th century, when the term ‘criminology’ finally came into use, and the field became a discipline. Primary purpose for criminology
Criminology is a form of knowledge viewing crime as a social phenomenon (Luckenbill, & Miller, 2007). The intention of criminology is the development of a form of common and tested principles and of other types of knowledge concerning this process of law, treatment, and crime. The reason for introducing theories
The important aspect about theories is that they are needed to live and to live better. Theories let us to develop and test solutions to problems we come across in life. Theorists use the scientific process to test their theories. They assemble data, generate a hypotheses—testable beliefs of behavior that can be obtained from the theory and test them using valid experiential research procedures. Around the end of the nineteenth century, a new vision of the world tested the legitimacy of classical theory and offered a modern way of looking at the causes of crime (Siegel, 2010). Classical school
The classical school was established during the eighteenth century in Europe. The classical school point of view of crime is a rational means for maximizing self-interest. Neoclassical Criminology
In neoclassical criminology, punishment is seen as providing both a deterrent and just deserts. Just deserts implies that criminal offenders deserve the punishment they receive and that any criminal punishment meted out should be suitable to the type and seriousness of the crime perpetrated. Biological Theories
Studying the behavior of the criminal is the first genuine concern represented by positivism. Positivism looks for ways to find those factors that cause the criminal conduct and remove (or treat) them, If the conduct were socially undesirable, individuals demonstrating them should be treated and returned to normalcy. Psychological and sociological theories as well as biological theories represents positivism. Positivism has had a huge effect on the way criminological theories have been shaped and the way that research has been conducted. Constitutional
Constitutional factors such as Gender, age, body type, observable physical characteristics, intelligence, and personality play a role in crime. Constitutional factors influence a person to specific types of behavior and that social reaction to such behavior may determine, to a large degree, the form of continued behavior (Schmalleger, 2009,). Psychological/Psychiatric Theories
A form of social learning theory modeling theory emphasizes that people learn how to act by watching others. They must learn the aggressive behavior. Psychoanalytic Criminology
Psychological theories gained popularity around the turn of 20th century, the dominance of sociological theories overshadowed biological and psychological theories of crime. Psychological theories of crime view individual difference in conduct make certain people likely to commit criminal conduct. This theory also claims that an environmental factor has initiated an...
References: Bryant, C. D., & Peck, D. L. (2007). Criminology. 21st Century Sociology, 1-2(), 390-399.
Luckenbill, D., & Miller, K. (2007). Criminology. In C. Bryant, & D. Peck (Eds.), 21st
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminology Today. An Integrative Introduction (6th ed.). Retrieved
from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database
Siegel, L. J. (2010). Criminology. Theories, Patterns, and Typologies, (10th ed.). Retrieved from
The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database
Williams, F. P., & McShane, M. D. (2011). Criminological Theory (5th ed.). Retrieved from The
University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
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