Preview

Ip3 Crime Causation

Powerful Essays
Open Document
Open Document
1535 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
Ip3 Crime Causation
Unit 3
Crime Causation
CRJS105-1201A-03
By
Erika.Esquer1
1/22/2012
American InterContinental University Online

Abstract
This essay will focus on sociological theories of crime and their description, the strengths and weaknesses of each; sociological control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory. This essay will also focus on Rajartnam who was convicted for inside trading in 2011.

Introduction
A different approach to criminological theory was taken in the 1960’s although; it was a derivative of older theories. The labeling theory wanted to know questions about crime and the criminal’s from a new aspect disputing earlier definitions of deviance (Williams & McShane, Criminological Theory, 2010).
According to (Griswold, Roberts, & Wiatrowski, 1981; Taylor, 2001) the social control theory recognizes that people are irresponsible and careless and that institutional socialization and social learning can imbue self control over instinct (Criminology: Social Control Theory [long] – Zoklet.net).
+
Social Control Theory
There are four major factors in the social control theory which are’ attachment, commitment, involvement and belief (Griswold, Roberts, & Wiatkowski, 1981). Attachments are formed through bonds with people, such as families and friends. Another major factor is Commitment. In the criminological context is hope of a person to life goals. In these times this would mean a good education and a good job to support oneself. The third major element is Involvement. Involvement means a person’s participation in community functions leading to socially valued success and status objectives. The fourth and final major factor is Belief. Belief is acknowledgement of the moral foundation of the social value system. (Criminology: Social Control Theory [long] – Zoklet.net).
The strength of attachment means if a person lives in a community and takes part in the community activities, harming the



References: Criminology: Social Control Theory [long] – Zoklet.net, Retrieved on 1/21/2012 from http://www.zoklet.net/bbs/showthread.php?t=36303 Differential Association Theory, Retrieved on 1/21/2012 from http://www.d.umn.edu/~jhamlin1/sutherland.html Learning Theory, Retrieved on 1/20/2011 from https://www.criminology,fsu.edu/crimtheory/learning.ht Mehta, Suketu, (Oct. 23, 2011) The Outsider; Newsweek Magazine, Retrieved on 1/21/2012 from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/10/23/exclusive-raj-rajaratnam-reveals-why-he-didn-t-take-a-plea.html Sociological Theories to Explain Deviance, Retrieved on 1/20/12 from http://www.valdosta.edu/~klowney/devtheories.htm Sykes & Matza: Techniques of Neutralization & Drift, Retrieved on 1/22/12 from http://www.comcast.net/~ddmelo/crime/sykes_matza.html The Crime and Deviance Channel, Retrieved on 1/20/12 from http://www.sociology.org.uk/cc_text/cc_updates_strainspl.pdf Williams, P., Frank III & McShane, D., Marilyn, (2010) Criminological Theory (5th Ed.) Published Prentice Hall, copyright © 2010, by Pearson Education, Inc.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    Theories of Crime

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Social Control Theory The social control theory does not ask the question “what makes people to commit a crime?” It bases its belief on the assumption that people are thought from a very young age between right and wrong. Social interaction is the key for the theory; humans are thought since birth the rules of society. Parents at home, and teachers in schools, are both the primary tutors of the upbringing of social behavior. According to Williams & McShane (2010), “Theories of social control all rely on social factors to explain how people are restrained from acting in ways harmful to others.” The strengths behind this theory is that social behavior is an immense factor when dealing with criminal behavior. If parents did not teach their children that taking candy from a store without paying was bad, then can we really blame that child for taking the candy? But on the other hand we do have those parents that carved good morals, and taught their kids right from wrong, but the children still committed criminal acts. This theory does have a lot of weight on criminal behavior because without proper socialization individuals are more prone to be confused about what is right and…

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Best Essays

    Social Controls

    • 2967 Words
    • 12 Pages

    This essay will thoroughly examine and evaluate the claim that it is social controls that prevent us from committing crimes by looking at different social control theories. Firstly we must determine what a social control theory consists of, according to Hopkins (2009) ‘social control theory is fundamentally derived from a conception of human nature that proposes that there are no natural limits on elementary human needs and desires. People will always want and seek further economic reward and it is thus not necessary to look for special motives for engaging in criminal activity. Human beings are born free to break the law and will only refrain from doing so under particular circumstances. It is these fundamental assumptions that form the basis of social control theories’ (Hopkins 2009, p.246). Therefore controls set in society are the reason humans do not commit crime, if these controls were to be removed humans would naturally due to their nature commit crime. This also shows that social control theories try and solve the question of ‘why do people not commit crime?’ rather than ‘what causes people to commit crime?’ The reason behind solving the first question rather than the second is because social control theorists believe committing crime is the default position of every human therefore the second question has already been solved.…

    • 2967 Words
    • 12 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Good Essays

    Essay On Strain Theory

    • 440 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Control Theory Unlike strain and social learning theorists, control theorists take crime for granted. They argue that all people have needs and desires that are more easily satisfied through crime than through legal channels.Crime in their eyes requires no special explanation: it is often the most expedient way to get what one wants. Rather than explaining why people engage in crime, we need to explain why they do not.…

    • 440 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Randy Kraft

    • 2491 Words
    • 10 Pages

    References: Akers, R. & Sellers, C. Criminological Theories. 4th edition. Los Angeles, Ca. RoxburyPublishing Company. 2004.…

    • 2491 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Unit 4 Notes

    • 25888 Words
    • 104 Pages

    * Different definitions of crime, deviance, social order and social control * The distinction between sociological theories of crime and other theories (eg biological, psychological); crime and deviance as socially constructed…

    • 25888 Words
    • 104 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    In this paper I will discuss how the relationships, values, commitments, and beliefs are encouraging factors for people to avoid crime or break laws set forth by government. If people would internalize moral values and take pride in the community, the desire to commit deviant acts will be obsolete. Understanding the reduction of crime is a concept of social control theory. A focus of discussion in this paper is comparing conflict and social control theories and the motivational issues stating that individuals choose to participate in a variety of activities that led to criminal behavior. A derivative view of human nature states that choice constraints exist through…

    • 1463 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Siegal, J. L. (2010). Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies (10th ed.). (C. H. Meier, Ed.) Belmont, California, USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.…

    • 2432 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    General Theory of Crime

    • 2326 Words
    • 10 Pages

    Comparative Criminology 52(5):520-537. Retrieved from Ebsco on Nov 28, 2012 Gottfredson, Michael R and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford,…

    • 2326 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Homicide in Puerto Rico

    • 2719 Words
    • 11 Pages

    Sutherland E and Cressey D. (1970). Criminology. By Cressey, Donald Ray, 1919-, Sutherland, Edwin H. (Edwin Hardin), 1883-1950 Lippincott Publishers.…

    • 2719 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Social Learning Theory Donny

    • 3362 Words
    • 10 Pages

    References: Akers, R. L. & Sellers, C. S. (2009). Social Learning Theory. Criminological theories: introduction, evaluation, and application (5th ed.)…

    • 3362 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Hirschi’s Social Control Theory states that we are all capable of committing a crime. We are all hedonistic, which means that no one is better than anyone else. We should also need a reason to refrain from committing crime, and unlike most theories, the Social Control Theory asks the question of “Why don’t people commit crime?” instead of the most common question of “Why do people commit crime?” Hirschi’s Social Control Theory has four main concepts or bonds, which are attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. Attachment is the close social tie a person has to their parents and society. Commitment is what we are inspired in to invest in long term goals. Involvement is the time and energy spent in legit activities and Belief is the belief in the values of society that someone has or doesn’t have. If the bonds in…

    • 1188 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Criminology

    • 1607 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Schwartz, Martin D Sellin, Thorsten. (1937). Crime in the Depression Sellin, Thorsten Taylor, Ian R., Walton, Paul & Young, Jock. (1988) The New Criminology: For a Social Theory of Deviance (International Library of Sociology), Routledge.…

    • 1607 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Self-control Theory: This approach sees the root cause of crime as a person’s inability to exercise socially appropriate controls over him­ or herself. Concepts: Self-control, general theory, criminal opportunity. (Frank Schmalleger,…

    • 925 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Criminology is essentially the study of crime. Must distinguish between two types of Criminologists: the key element in making this distinction centers around who is a theorist and who is not.…

    • 4581 Words
    • 19 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Social bond theory or sometimes referred to as social control theory developed by Travis Hirschi American Criminologist in the late 1960’s it is the belief that socialization and the forming of personal relationships are among the most significant aspects of human development that keep us from committing crimes or other acts of social deviance. Due to the bonds that people…

    • 440 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays