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Consumer Purchased Behavior

By oooopocot Apr 11, 2013 985 Words
Chapter 2

Perception

2-1

Learning Objectives
When you finish this chapter, you should understand
why:

• Perception is a three-stage process that translates
raw stimuli into meaning.

• Products and commercial messages often appeal to
our senses, but we won’t be influenced by most of
them.

• The design of a product today is a key driver of its
success or failure.

2-2

Learning Objectives (continued)

• Subliminal advertising is a controversial―but
largely ineffective―way to talk to consumers.

• We interpret the stimuli to which we do pay
attention according to learned patterns and
expectations.

• Marketers use symbols to create meaning.

2-3

Sensation and Perception

• Sensation is the immediate
response of our sensory receptors
(eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and
fingers) to basic stimuli (light,
color, sound, odor, and texture).

• Perception is the process by which
sensations are selected,
organized, and interpreted.

2-4

Figure 2.1 Perceptual Process

We receive external
stimuli through
our five senses

2-5

Hedonic Consumption

• Hedonic consumption:
multisensory, fantasy,
and emotional aspects
of consumers’
interactions with
products

• Marketers use impact of
sensations on
consumers’ product
experiences
2-6

Sensory Systems

• Our world is a
symphony of colors,
sounds, odors, tastes

• Advertisements,
product packages,
radio and TV
commercials,
billboards provide
sensations

2-7

Vision

• Color provokes emotion
• Reactions to color are
biological and cultural

• Color in the United States
is becoming brighter and
more complex

• Trade dress: colors
associated with specific
companies
2-8

Vertical-Horizontal Illusion

• Which line is longer:
horizontal or vertical?

• Answer: both lines are
same length

2-9

Scents
Odors create mood and
promote memories:

• Coffee = childhood,
home

• Cinnamon buns = sex
Marketers use scents:

• Inside products
• In promotions (e.g.,
scratch ‘n sniff)
2-10

Sound
Sound affects people’s feelings and behaviors

• Phonemes: individual sounds that might be
more or less preferred by consumers
•Example: “i” brands are “lighter” than “a”
brands

• Muzak uses sound and music to create mood
•High tempo = more stimulation
•Slower tempo = more relaxing

2-11

Touch

• Haptic senses―or “touch”―is the most basic
of senses; we learn this before vision and
smell

• Haptic senses affect product experience and
judgment

• Kinsei engineering is a Japanese philosophy
that translates customers’ feelings into design
elements

2-12

Table 2.1 Tactile-Quality Associations

Perception

Male

Female
Fine

High class

Wool

Silk

Low class

Denim

Cotton
Coarse

Heavy

Light

2-13

Taste

• Flavor houses develop
new concoctions for
consumer palates

• Cultural changes
determine desirable
tastes

• The more respect we have
for ethnic dishes, the more
spicy food we desire

2-14

Exposure

• Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes
within range of someone’s sensory receptors

• We can concentrate, ignore, or completely
miss stimuli

• Cadillac’s 5 second ad

2-15

Sensory Thresholds

• Psychophysics: science that focuses on how
the physical environment is integrated into
our personal, subjective world

• Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of
stimulation that can be detected on a given
sensory channel

2-16

Differential Threshold

• The ability of a sensory
system to detect changes
or differences between two
stimuli
• Minimum difference between
two stimuli is the j.n.d. (just
noticeable difference)

• Example: packaging
updates must be subtle
enough over time to keep
current customers
2-17

Subliminal Perception

• Subliminal perception occurs when stimulus
is below the level of the consumer’s
awareness.

• Rumors of subliminal advertising are
rampant―though there’s little proof that it
occurs.

• Most researchers believe that subliminal
techniques are not of much use in marketing.

2-18

Subliminal Techniques

• Embeds: figures that are inserted into
magazine advertising by using high-speed
photography or airbrushing.

• Subliminal auditory perception: sounds,
music, or voice text inserted into advertising.

2-19

Attention

• Attention is the extent to which processing
activity is devoted to a particular stimulus

• Consumers are often in a state of sensory
overload

• Marketers need to break through the clutter

2-20

Personal Selection Factors

Perceptual vigilance

Perceptual defense

Adaptation

2-21

Factors Leading to Adaptation

Intensity

Duration

Discrimination

Exposure

Relevance

2/25/2013
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

2-22

Stimulus Selection Factors

• We are more likely to notice stimuli that
differ from others around them

• So, marketers can create “contrast” through:

Size

Color

Position

Novelty

2-23

Creating Contrast with Size

2-24

Interpretation

• Interpretation refers to the meaning we
assign to sensory stimuli, which is based on a
schema

2-25

Stimulus Organization

• Gestalt: the whole is greater than the sum of
its parts
•Closure: people perceive an incomplete
picture as complete
•Similarity: consumers group together
objects that share similar physical
characteristics
•Figure-ground: one part of the stimulus will
dominate (the figure) while the other parts
recede into the background (ground)
2-26

Application of the
Figure-Ground Principle

2-27

Semiotics

• Semiotics: correspondence between signs
and symbols and their role in the
assignment of meaning

• Marketing messages have three basic

components:
• Object: product that is the focus of the
message
• Sign: sensory image that represents the
intended meanings of the object
• Interpretant: meaning derived
2-28

Figure 2.3 Semiotic Relationships

2-29

Perceptual Positioning

• Brand perceptions = functional attributes +
symbolic attributes

• Perceptual map: map of where brands are
perceived in consumers’ minds
•Used to determine how brands are
currently perceived to determine future
positioning

2-30

Positioning Strategy

• Examples of brand positioning
Lifestyle
Price leadership
Attributes
Product class
Competitors
Occasions
Users
Quality

Grey Poupon is “high class”
Southwest Airlines is “no frills”
Bounty is “quicker picker upper”
Mazda Miata is sporty convertible
Northwestern Insurance is the “quiet
company
Wrigley’s gum used when smoking not
permitted
Levi’s Dockers targeted to men in 20s
and 30s
At Ford, “Quality is Job 1”

2-31

Chapter Summary
• Perception is a three-stage process that translates
raw stimuli into meaning.

• Products and messages may appeal to our senses.
• The design of a product affects our perception of it.
• Subliminal advertising is controversial.
• We interpret stimuli using learned patterns.
• Marketers use symbols to create meaning.

2-32

Cite This Document

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