Concepts, Terms, Language, and Definition for Philosophy 101

Topics: Object, Philosophy of language, Meaning of life Pages: 6 (1312 words) Published: June 23, 2013
Question 1. What are the different kinds of concepts or terms? Categorize these concepts/terms according to their classification. Provide an example.

CONCEPTS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND INTENTION

Intention refers to the act of the mind as representing reality.

1. FIRST INTENTION. A concept presenting the nature or quality of a thing in itself. Example: Man is a corporeal substance.

2. SECOND INTENTION. A concept which presents the mode of manner how the mind understands such nature or quality as a logical reality. Example: Man is a species.

CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT CONCEPTS

1. CONCRETE CONCEPT. Signifies a nature or quality as found residing in an individual or subject. Example: animal, dog, chair, friend

2. ABSTRACT CONCEPT. Signifies a nature or quality as though it exists on its own right and apart from the individual or subject. Example: friendship, freedom, royalty

CONCEPT ACCORDING TO COMPREHENSION

1. SIMPLE. Expresses a single aspect or feature of a thing such as, being, essence, action, potentiality. COMPOUND. Expresses several aspects or features of a thing such as: man, Filipino, philosopher, society, etcetera.

2. ABSOLUTE. Expresses a thing existing as a substance or as though it were a substance – the nature of a thing capable of existing on its own and of supporting the attributes belonging to such nature. Example: man, animal, sun, God

CONNOTATIVE. Signifies not a substance, but a quality or feature inhering in, and, therefore, implying a substance.
Example: strong, long, rider, beautiful

CONCEPTS ACCORDING TO EXTENSION

1. SINGULAR. Signifies one specific individual.
Example: My father, his teacher in Logic

2. UNIVERSAL. Signifies all the individuals within the extension of such concept and expressed verbally with the quantifiers “all”, “each”, and “every”. Example: each one, all students, nobody

3. PARTICULAR. Signifies but a part or portion of the total extension of such concept. The quantifiers “Some”, “Several”, “few”, and their equivalents denote particularly. Example: few books, several teachers, majority of them

4. COLLECTIVE. Signifies a group or collection but not members of such groups such as family, class, army, corporation, society, etc. Example: singular concept – the San Miguel PBA Team
Universal/particular – all teams

5. UNIVOCAL. Signifies a feature which is shared by different individuals or subjects in exactly the same way. Example: Filipino

6. ANALOGOUS. Signifies a feature which applies to several individuals or subjects in a partly the same and partly different manner.

CONCEPTS ACCORDING TO ORIGIN

1. REAL. Derived from factual reality.
Example: woman, laborer, lawyer
ARBITRARY. Derived from the imagination as mental fabrication or fiction.
Example: mermaid, a talking dog, Superman

2. IMMEDIATE. Derived from direct perception of things.
Example: myself, you, this table
MEDIATE. Derived from other concepts.
Example: God, Supreme Creator, lawful action

CONCEPTS ACCORDING TO RELATION

1. IDENTICAL. Those having the same comprehension and extension. Example: man and rational animal, God and Supreme Being

2. SIMILAR. Those having the same extension but different comprehension. Example: writer and journalist, man and moral animal

3. COMPATIBLE. Those expressing features which may be present simultaneously in one individual or subject Example: rich and humble, intelligent and beautiful

4. INCOMPATIBLE. Those expressing features which cannot be present together and simultaneously in one individual or subject Example: sick and healthy, wise and stupid

5. RELATIVE. Those that express a feature of a thing which cannot be thought of what implying another. Example: slave and master, husband and wife

6. PRIVATIVE. Those which express the absence or lack of perfection in an individual or subject. Example: blindness, ignorance

7. CONTRADICTORY....
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