Week 4 Assignment 1: Computer Archtecture
Intro to Info Technology – CIS 106031VA016-1144-001
Professor John Murnane
May 4, 2014
Von Neumann Architecture
Von Neumann architecture is a stored program architecture with no differentiation between data and instruction memory. Both the data and instruction reside on a single chip. The concept of no differentiation between data and instruction memory is accurate, but existing on one chip has nothing to do with it. Most computer memories in modern times require multiple chips. At the time Von Neumann did his work integrated circuit chips had not yet been invented, let alone used for storage - that came later in the 1970s. Furthermore, Von Neumann had not "invented" EDSAC. Some of his ideas inspired it, but its lead designer was Maurice Wilkes. An essential partition of a Von Neumann machine is that it implements a Turing-complete Finite State Machine - that is that- the machine follows a program in a series of discrete stages, ending in a specific state after each stage.
Bus speed can make a major impact. In any modern system, the processor runs significantly faster than the memory bus; the ratio of processor speed to bus speed is the bus multiplier. Basically, the lower the multiplier the better. What happens with a faster bus is that more data can be fed to the processor –known as throughput- and the time it takes to start a request is usually lower – this is called latency. If you have a really fast processor on a slow bus, the processor will sit idle most of the time. To compensate for the fact that extremely fast busses either cannot be built (due to length of the bus) or are prohibitively expensive, caching is used to help make it appear as if the memory was as fast as the processor. If your processor has a large, in most applications L2 or L3 cache the difference in lessened. So, as a long winded answer to your question: it depends. If getting the faster bus is not out of your budget, by all means, do it. If it is not in your budget, you may consider the tradeoff of a slightly slower processor and faster bus. The most important aspect for a bus is the speed with which it can transmit information. The higher the amount of data transfer allowed between different internal devices, the higher is the system's bus speed. The rate at which information can be transmitted is directly dependent on the number of physical lines through which data can be simultaneously transferred. Data transfer rate is conveyed in bits, and in a 32-wire ribbon cable, 32 bits can be transmitted in parallel. As such, the bus speed is based on the width of the ribbon cable, a measure of how many bits can be concurrently transmitted. Boolean Operators
Boolean operators are words used to make a logical search query. These operators enable us to broaden or narrow your search. Our research questions, the thesis, must be organized into a form that a computer can work with. Boolean operators help bridge the gap between human thought, human language and computers which use mathematical logic to compute--not think. You may have already encountered their inventor, George Boole, in your Introduction to Logic course. A dexterous investigator can combine Boolean operators and knowledge of database fields to articulate a search that causes a computer to retrieve relevant results from a database. A skillful searcher can also analyze the reasons for failed searches and make intelligent adjustments. The basic Boolean operators AND, OR, NOT. AND is like adding two operations and objects. OR gives the computer a choice in direction with actions. NOT tells the computer what operations to exclude and do instead.
Categories of Memory and Storage
RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read only Memory) are the two categories of memory. RAM is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is,...
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