Topics: Sumer, Mesopotamia, Babylonia Pages: 2 (268 words) Published: December 24, 2013
1.Mesopotamia: First and longest civilization in the world
Government Type:
Combination of monarchy and democracy
Law and order
Sumerian Laws: Sumerian laws were not written down, but people knew what they were and they knew what could happen to you if you broke the law. Babylonian Laws: The laws that were later written down by the ancient Babylonians were, for the most part, laws first created by the ancient Sumerians. Achievements:

Pythagoras’ Law and 360 degree circle
Wheel, roads, plows, cuneiform (writing ziggurats (pyramids) Sumerian writing, medicines and astronomy (calendar)
Cultural Impact:
The invention of the wheel and carts by Sumerians will help long-distance travel (the Silk Roads, and much later, automobiles). The Phoenician alphabet will be the basis of many written languages including the modern English alphabet. The concept of monotheism by the Hebrews will be modeled by future world religions (Christianity, modern Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and later, Hinduism). The Babylonians and Assyrians set examples of empires that will be popular in structure in Persia, Rome, and China. Sumerians began metallurgy as early as 4000 B.C., and it would make its way to regions like Egypt and China. 2.Egypt:

Government type:
Absolute Power
Structures of social class:
Pharaoh: In charge of everything; owned everything; divine representative of God on Earth Vizier: Pharaoh’s right hand man
High Priests
Royal Oversees: administrators; ensured that the 42 district governors carried out the pharaoh's orders. Scribes, artisans, farmers and laborers
FIRST to develop surgery, Beer, Wine and Granite tools, largest monument on earth and develop Boating and makeup Developed a calendar, originated with a form of writing called hieroglyphics
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