Civil Engineering

Topics: Concrete, Construction, Sand Pages: 32 (10748 words) Published: January 16, 2013
Civil Construction Materials.
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The material used for construction or the materials used to produce other materials which may be used in construction is called construction material. construction material are: Cement,sand ,water.  Concrete,  Lime,  Stones, Paints and Varnishes,   Wood and Timber, Engineering Metals, Bituminous materials and Plastics,  Rubber and Glass, Miscelleneous materials,
Bricklayer Joseph Asp din of Leeds, England first made portland cement early in the 19th century by burning powdered limestone and clay in his kitchen stove. Portland cement, the basic ingredient of concrete, is a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and small amounts of other ingredients sand to which gypsum is added in the final grinding process to regulate the setting time of the concrete. Lime and silica make up about 85% of the mass. Common among the materials used in its manufacture are limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate or blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore. Strength of cement

Also known as the mother of all engineering, it is the oldest, most simple and useful of all engineering sciences. Civil engineering is field of engineering sciences, related to construction, design and maintenance of buildings, dams, bridges, tunnels, highways etc. Properties of cement.

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Uses of cement.
* building (floors, beams, columns, roofing, piles, bricks, mortar, panels, plaster) * transport (roads, pathways, crossings, bridges, sleepers, viaducts, tunnels, stabilization, runways, parking) * water (pipes, culverts, kerbing, drains, canals, weirs, dams, tanks, pools) * civil (piers, docks, retaining walls, silos, warehousing, poles, pylons, fencing) * agriculture (buildings, processing, housing, feedlots, irrigation) Related Answers:


Sand is an extremely needful material for the construction but this important material must be purchased with all care and vigilance. Sand which is used in the construction purpose must be clean, free from waste stones and impurities. It is important to know what type of sand is beneficial for construction purpose as sand is also classified into three different forms that make it suitable for specific type of construction.

Sand is classified as: Fine Sand (0.075 to 0.425 mm), Medium Sand (0.425 to 2 mm) and Coarse Sand (2.0 to4.75 mm). However this classification of sand is further has types of sand in particular and on that basis only they are being incorporated in the construction. Read out the detailing of the types of sand:

Pit Sand (Coarse sand)

Pit sand is classified under coarse sand which is also called badarpur in common language. This type of coarse sand is procured from deep pits of abundant supply and it is generally in red-orange colour. The coarse grain is sharp, angular and certainly free from salts etc which is mostly employed in concreting.

River Sand 

River sand is procured from river streams and banks and is fine in quality unlike pit sand. This type of sand has rounded grains generally in white-grey colour. River sand has many uses in the construction purpose such as plastering. 

Sea Sand

As the name suggest, sea sand is taken from seas shores and it is generally in distinct brown colour with fine circular grains. Sea sand is avoided for the purpose construction of concrete structure and in engineering techniques because it contains salt which tends to absorb moisture from atmosphere and brings dampness. Eventually cement also loses its action when mixed with sea sand that is why it is only used for the local purpose instead of structural construction. 

There are different standards for the construction purpose which must be checked and considered for the better construction. The requirement according to which sand is...
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