Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and intournaments. Each player begins the game with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, with the objective to 'checkmate' the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways, where neither player wins. The course of the game is divided into three phases: opening, middlegame, and endgame. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Indian chess GrandmasterViswanathan Anand. In addition to the World Championship, there are the Women's World Championship, the Junior World Championship, theWorld Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships. The Chess Olympiad is a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee and international chess competition is sanctioned by the World Chess Federation (FIDE), which adopted the now-standard Staunton chess set in 1924 for use in all official games. There are also many chess variants, with different rules, different pieces, and different boards. Since the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where home computers can play chess at a very high level. In the past two decades computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match, when itdefeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. Chess Terms and Definitions
by NM Dan Heisman
Action Chess: A game where each player only has 30 minutes to make all his moves. Algebraic Notation: A method for writing moves down by using the names of the pieces and the ranks and files. Replaced older Descriptive Notation (“P-K4" is now "e4") about 1970. Amateur: In chess, a non-master. At the US Amateur, masters cannot play.At the US Amateur Team tournaments, the team has to average below master rating. Note: in chess, amateurs can win money, sometimes quite a bit at tournaments like the World Open. Attack: When you move a piece to a square where you could capture an opponent’s piece NEXT move. Back Rank: The rank where a player sets up his major pieces (1st for White; 8th for Black) Back-Rank Mate: A checkmate on the 1st or 8th rank with a Rook or Queen. Battery: Lining up two pieces that move similarly, like a Queen and Rook or Queen and Bishop. Blitz: Fast chess. Many blitz games are 5 minutes per player for the entire game. Book Besides the kind with a spine, a “book” move is one that a player has learned to play in a particular position in the opening (from a “book” or other media) without the need to “calculate”. Blunder :A bad move; primarily a move that turns a win into a loss or draw, or a draw into a loss. Bughouse: A variant of chess with two players on each side – a player gets the pieces his partner captures. Bye: What you get when you can’t play a round, but are still continuing to play in the tournament. Byes don’t count for ratings, but can be either 0 points, ½ point, or 1 point (in case you want to play, but are the odd person...
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