Chapter 25: imperialism, Alliances, and War
After 1870, Europe exercised unprecedented influence and control over the rest of the world.
European dominance brought every part of the globe into a single world economy.
The new global economy increased hostility and led to intense nationalism.
Section One: Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism
Explosive developments in nineteenth-century science, technology, industry, agriculture, transportation, communication, and military weapons.
Europeans used these developments to impose their will upon others as they considered their civilization and way of life to be superior to all others.
Although the early nineteenth century was generally hostile toward …show more content…
To protect their investments, European states wither loaned the local governments money or intimidated them with force in order to create a favorable balance of trade.
Sometimes direct rule or annexation took place
In some areas, European powers created “spheres of influence” in which they received special commercial and legal privileges without direct political involvement.
Motives for the New Imperialism
Lenin on imperialism
Competition in a capitalist economy inevitably eliminates inefficient capitalists and therefore leads to monopoly
Capitalists run out of profitable areas in their countries’ and persuade their governments to gain colonies in “less developed” countries.
The case of Britain proves Lenin’s theory wrong
Britain made heavier investments abroad before 1875 than during the next two decades it declined.
European imperial powers did not rely heavily on their colonies for raw materials.
Social Darwinism and