4. How did the rapid industrialization of warfare impact the war?
It generated an array of novel weapons, including submarines, tanks, airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, and barbed wire. This new military technology contributed to the staggering casualties of the war, including some 10 million deaths; perhaps twice the number wounded, crippled, or disfigured; and countless women for whom their would be no husbands or children
5. With whom did the Ottoman Empire ally itself in WWI?
Germany. (p. 981)
6. When and why did the United States join the war?
The United States, after initially seeking to avoid involvement in European quarrels, joined the war in 1917 when German submarines threatened American shipping. (p. 981)
7. In what ways did WWI mark new departures for countries around the globe in the history of the 20th century?
The authority of governments expanded greatly.
In the European center of the conflict, unprecedented casualties, particularly among the elite and well-educated groups, and the physical destruction, especially in France, led to a widespread disillusionment among intellectuals with their own civilization. From the collapse of the German, Russian, and Austrian empires emerged a new map of
Central Europe with an independent Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and other nations.
Such new states were based on the principle of “national self-determination.”
In Russia, the strains of war triggered a vast revolutionary upheaval that brought the radical
Bolsheviks to power in 1917 and took Russia out of the war. Thus was launched world communism. The Treaty of Versailles, which formally ended the war in 1919, proved in retrospect to have established conditions that generated a second world war only twenty years later.
Ottoman authorities massacred or deported an estimated one million Armenians, and established a precedent on which the Nazis later built.
The war also brought a final end to a declining