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Chapter 1 — the First Civilizations

By snoman1818 Feb 24, 2013 2398 Words
Chapter 1 — The First Civilizations
The Earliest Humans
Essential Question
How did humans become food producers rather than food gatherers? * Domestication of animals
* There was fertile soil to grow crops
* Hunting animals was harder
* Agriculture was a failure for a long time

I can statements
Explain why the development of agriculture was so crucial for the establishment of civilization. * Hunting wasn’t reliable
* You may not get enough food for the day by hunting/gathering * People didn’t have to chase their food
* With agriculture people had more free time
* People could begin to trade goods
Describe the advantages & disadvantages of food producers over food gatherers. Negatives
* Worse diets-less variety lacking protein
* Bigger populations-more demand
* Social and sexual inequality
* Disease
* Famine
* People began to shrink
* Wars over land
Positives
* Agriculture was easier than hunting/gathering
* Settlements
* Domestication of animals
* Variety of grown foods

Analyze the gender roles during the Paleolithic & Neolithic Ages * Men were hunters
* Women were gatherers
* Women tended to children
* Men were dominant

Concepts
Paleolithic vs. Neolithic Age
Paleolithic:
* No permanent settlement-always on the move for food (nomads) * Hunter-gatherers
* Beginning of human beings-11,000 B.C.
* Sophisticated kind of cave painting
* Religious?-shown through cave paintings
Neolithic:
* “New Stone Age”
* 11,000 B.C.
* Discovered agriculture
* Produced food
* Larger populations
* More food supply
* First settlements
Gender Roles
* Men were hunters
* Women were gatherers
* Women tended to children
* Men were dominant
Eight Features of Civilization
* Eight Features include:
a. Cities
b. Well-organized central government
c. Complex religions
d. Job specialization
e. Social classes
f. Arts and architecture
g. Public works
h. Writing
* Specialization developed in civilizations
* Sumer was the first civilization
Terms/Events
Paleolithic Age
* The Old Stone Age
* Nomadic people
* Religious cave paintings
* Hunters/gatherers
* Beginning of human beings-11,000 B.C.
Nomadic
* Nomad: “A member of a people who have no permanent abode and travel from place to place to find fresh pasture for their livestock.”- Dictionary.com * Moved around
* Not settled
* In the Paleolithic Age mostly
Neolithic Age
* The “New Stone Age”
* First settlements-due to agriculture
* 11,000 B.C.
* Larger population
Homo Sapiens
* 250,000 years ago
2 types:
1. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
* 100,000-30,000 B.C.
* Relied on varied stone tools and were first to bury their dead * Afterlife?
* Made clothes from animal skin
2. Homo Sapiens Sapiens
* 200,000 B.C.
* Spread outside of Africa 100,000 years ago
* Replaced Neanderthal 30,000 years ago
The First Civilizations in Mesopotamia
Essential Question
Why was agriculture an essential step in the creation of river valley civilizations of Sumer and Babylon? * It supplied food for a large population
* The land there has rich soil for growing crops
* It allowed people to settle down and not have to migrate to their food * It gave people more free time- essentially why architecture could be built I can statements
Describe the characteristics of the Sumerian civilization as a significant development in Western history. * Developed cuneiform
* Was the first civilization
* Created the city of Uruk which had an estimated population of 50,000 people * Developed the sexagesmial system- based off the number 60 (still used today) * Created the “Epic of Gilgamesh”

Analyze how cuneiform inscriptions and codes revealed much about Babylonian politics, society, and culture.

* The Hammurabi Code described the laws and punishments in Babylonia * It showed inequality in sexes in some documents
* There were three social classes
* Showed how they were obedient to Marduk
Concepts
Positives/Negatives of Geographic Area
Positives
* Transportation
* Many water sources
* Good for trade routes
* Floods- positive for farming
* Rich soil
Negatives
* Susceptible to invasion
* Floods- negative because it could destroy crops, cities, homes, etc… * Isolated because of deserts
Relationship with Gods

* Believed gods controlled nature
* Polytheistic- believed in many gods
* Epic of Gilgamesh
* Pessimistic views towards gods linked to nature
* Longed for immortality
* No afterlife?
* Built ziggurats

Trade, Math, and Writing
Trade
* Geography forced Sumerians to devise the art of drading * Essential for the growth of Sumerian cities-lacked some resources such as timber and stone Mathematics
* Sexagesimal system
* Based on the number 60
* Factors of 3, 10, and 12
* One of the longest lasting legacies of Mesopotamia
* Still used today, ex: 12 inches in a foot, 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and the circle is 360 degrees. Writing
* Developed cuneiform
* Allowed them to keep records, codify laws, and transmit knowledge * Pictographic script
* Made by pressing the end of a reed or bone stylus on a clay tablet * Cuneiform means “wedge”

Epic of Gilgamesh vs. Enuma Elish
Gilgamesh
* 2/3 god 1/3 human
* Journey to find immortality
* Pessimistic view
* Gods control everything
* Focused on humans and their conflicts with gods
* Gods are the reason for life and death
* Flood
Enuma Elish
* Based off Sumerian story
* People haven’t been created until the end
* Only gods
* Tells the creation of gods
* Tells the creation of Earth
* Doesn’t mention a flood
* Gods fight each other- not humans
* Marduk kills Tiamat
Importance of Hammurabi's Code
* Created order
* People obeyed higher authority
* Protected women in some laws
* Protected children in some laws
* First law code ever written and displayed
Terms/Events
Mesopotamia
* “Land between two rivers”
* Had the fertile crescent
* Agriculture was invented here
* In between the Euphrates and Tigris river
* Prone to flooding
* Home to Babylon and Sumer
Ziggurat
* Ziggurat: a terraced tower built of baked brick and culminating in a temple, probably for the patron god of the city * 36 feet thick wall surrounding it
* Was built in the center of the city
* Tower of Babel was ultimately based on the memory of a ziggurat Cuneiform
* Written by pressing the end of a reed or bone stylus into a clay tablet * Sumerian writing language
* Developed about 3000 B.C.
* Able to keep records now
* In Latin cuneus means wedge
Sexagesimal
* Sumerian math system based on the number 60
* Factors of 3, 10, and 12
* Still used today in some cases
Code of Hammurabi
* 280 sections of written law
* Created by King Hammurabi
* It is a stone column that stands 8ft tall and is written in cuneiform * Begins with a preamble
* Most people could not read it so they feared it
* Laid out laws and punishments
* Sometimes was unfair or cruel

Lex talionis
* "An eye for an eye"
* Shown in the Code of Hammurabi
* Ex: if a man breaks another man’s bone, they shall break his bone. People
Gilgamesh
* 2/3 god, 1/3 human
* In the Epic of Gilgamesh
* Wanted immortality
* Protagonist in the story
Sargon
* Was of the area called Akkad
* Ruled from 2371 to 2316 B.C. and conquered all of Mesopotamia * Through Sargon we meet the Semitites
Hammurabi
* Reigned Babylonia from 1792-1750 B.C.
* Created the Hammurabi Code
Egypt
Essential Question
How did the Egyptians develop a prosperous, long-lasting, religious society along the Nile River from 3000 B.C.E. — 300 B.C.E.? * The Nile was believed to be a god
* Their rulers (pharaohs) were directly linked to gods
* They believed in afterlife so they were more optimistic * They built pyramids based on religious reasons to bury dead pharaohs * Their art reflected the gods
* If you lived a good life you were granted eternal life after death I can statements
Compare the Egyptian civilization to Mesopotamia in regards to the role their geography played in their development. * Egypt was protected better than Mesopotamia
* Egypt was less susceptible to invasion
* Egypt was surrounded by a desert
* In Egypt the civilizations were on the Nile River
* Mesopotamia was in the open
* Mesopotamia was always flooding
* In Mesopotamia cities were built between the two rivers in the fertile crescent Connect Egyptian attitudes towards life after death to their religion and attitudes towards life in general. * To have eternal life you must live a good life on earth * They would mummify the dead so that they could stay intact to go to the afterlife * They were considered to be servants of god

* They buried pharaohs in pyramids
Terms/Events
Pharaoh
* Ruler of New Kingdom Egypt
* Directly linked to gods
* Had dynasties
* Reigned for many years at a time
* When they died they were buried in pyramids
Nile River
* Essential for life in Egypt
* Had cataracts
* Cities are located along it
* Good water source
* Considered to be a god
* “The creator of everything good”
Mummification
* After death bodies were embalmed
* Brain was removed
* Bodies were wrapped
* Kept intact over thousands of years
Maat
* An abstract quality
* “right order”
* Maat existed if everything was in the order that the gods had ordained Hieroglyphics
* Egyptian form of writing
* Means “sacred carvings”
* Written on many things, but one of the most important was the Rosetta Stone * Pictographic
Rosetta Stone
* Found by French soldiers
* Was divided into 3 sections (Greek, Demotic, and Hieroglyphs) * Helped to translate hieroglyphs
* Discovered 1798
* Dates back to 196 B.C.
* Praises a pharaoh
Tale of Isis and Osiris
* Creation story
* Osiris was the protagonist
* Set, his brother was the antagonist
* Osiris is the king of the Nile River
* Explains the 5 extra days in the year (365 days in a year) People
Menes (Narmer)
* Unified Upper & Lower Egypt
* Founder of the first dynasty
* Created the capital of Memphis
* Reigned for 62 years
* Apparently killed by a hippo

Hatshepsut
* 1437-1458 B.C.
* Most powerful female ruler of all ancient times
* Portrayed as a sphinx with a beard
* Focused on architecture
* Throne name Maat-ka-re
* Daughter of Thutmose I
* After death many of her reliefs sustained damage to erase her name from history Thutmose III
* “Napoleon” of Ancient Egypt
* Throne name Men-Kheper-Re
* Reigned after Hatshepsut (his mother)
* Famous for his military campaigns
Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton)
* 1352-1336 B.C.
* Son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy
* Changed art and religion in Egypt
* Introduced the monotheistic cult of worship to the sun-disc Aten * Changed his name to Akhnaton
Ramses II
* 1279-1213 B.C.
* Throne name User-maat-re Setep-en-re
* Military and cultural actions
* Confrontation with the Hittites
* Established a new capital called Pi-Ramesse
Palestine
Essential Question
What did the Phoenicians and Israelites contribute to urban, religious, and cultural traditions? * Phoenicians had a 22 letter alphabet which is the ancestor of western alphabets * Israelites made the Bible

* Phoenicians were expert traders, sailors, and explorers I can statements
Explain the extraordinary influence of the Canaanites and Phoenicians * The Phoenicians were expert traders and influenced other cultures * They established many trading posts
* They controlled parts of North Aftica and Spain
* They are known for their articles of trade which were a reddish dye that ancients called purple * They had developed a high urban civilization
Decide how useful the Old Testament is as a historical document * It talks about times when Hebrew people were enslaved multiple times * Parts of the bible have been proven
* It talks about the Assyrians
* It talks about certain geography
* It talks about past events in history
Describe the major innovations of the Hebrew religion and why they exert such an impact on Western cilvilization * First monotheistic religion
* It deals with real people
* They had free will
* The people were in control, but god wanted things done a certain way Terms/Events
Phoenicians
* Settled along Mediterranean coast in Phoenicia
* Lacked military for empire
* Expert sailors/explorers
* “Carriers of civilization”
* Expert traders
Indo-European
* Languages mostly spoken in Europe
* Greek
* Latin
* Slavic
* German
* Italian
* French
* English…..etc
Semitic
* Languages
* Arabic and Hebrew
Exodus
* Covenant= Responsibility
* Ten commandments
* Story of Moses leading his people
Covenant
* God’s promise
* Contract between god and his people
Babylonian Captivity
* Jews were captured by Neo-Babylonians
* Bible was written here
* Cyrus allowed Jews back into Palestine

Yahweh
* Name for god
* Gave his people free will
* Created 10 commandments

Ten Commandments
* Yahweh’s rules for his people
* Major one was to not have any gods before him
* People could chose whether or not to follow them
* You will get judged once you die on how well you followed them People
Saul
* The first King of the Israelite Monarchy
Moses
* Received the 10 commandments from god
* Led Israelites from Egypt
* Parted the Red Sea
Abraham
* Led his people into Palestine
David
* Second king
* Captured Jerusalem
Solomon
* David’s son
* Builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem
The Near Eastern Empires
Essential Question
How did the Assyrians and Persians establish powerful unifying empires in the Near East? * The Assyrian’s army was feared and powerful
* They were a military based city
* They had good rulers
I can statements
Explain how Assyrians, Persian and other Near Eastern kings were able to hold their empires together. * They had good military
* Powerful rulers
* Many refugees
* Good battle plans
List the tenets of Zoroastrianism and how it contributed to the Christian religion. * Ahura Mazda created the world and directed the heavens and seasons * Persian god was influenced by the Hebrew religion

* Zoroaster was the prophet
* It is monotheistic
* Creator of humankind
Terms/Events
Assyrians
* Military based city
* Magnificent works of art
* Gave way to the Neo-Babylonian Kingdom and the Kingdom of the Medes Neo-Babylonians
* Hammurabi was its capital
* Notorious as a center of luxury and wealth
* Dominant tribe in the kingdom was the Chaldeans
* Most famous Neo-Babylonian king was Nebuchadnezzar
Persians
* Formed the largest, most efficient state down to their time * Founder was King Cyrus
* Conquered many civilizations
Zoroastrianism
* The prophet who formed the Persian faith was Zoroaster
* Lived about 600 B.C.
* Formed the belief in the Persian god Ahura Mazda
Dualism
* Much like Christianity, perceived a God and a devil
* Demanded the recognition of the one good spirit and a life of devotion to Ahura’s ideals * Persian faith taught that Ahura was opposed by Ahriman, a wholly evil spirit * One with two divine forces

People
Ashurbanipal
* Assyrian King
* Built the Library at Nineveh
* The library contained 1,000s of cuneiform texts
Nebuchadnezzar
* Neo-Babylonian King
* 586 B.C.-conquers south of Israel (Jerusalem) and exiles Hebrews to Babylon * Hanging gardens of Babylon
Cyrus
* 559-530 B.C.
* Formed the largest, most efficient state down to their time * Determined imperialist
* First conquest was his victory over Media

Darius
* Height of the Persian Empire
* Darius was source of law: “As was said by me, thus it was done” * Devotion to Justice: “I punish him according to the damage he has done” Zoroaster
* Prophet who formed the Persian faith
* Lived about 600 B.C.
Ahura Mazda
* Persian god
* Created the world and directed the heavens and seasons

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