When ask what change is, the usual response is anything that does not stay the same.
Roy Chadband (2008) in lecturers notes suggest that anything away from the usual activity is considered change.
Therefore the researcher understanding of change is, any form of movement that take place in any discipline, whether forward or backward.
The best- known change models are those developed Kurt Lewin (1951), Beckhard (1969). Important contributions to an understanding of the mechanisms for change have been made by Thurley (1979), Quinn (1980), Nadler (1980), Bandura (1986) and Beer, Eisenstat and Spector (1990). However the Kurt Lewin Model (KLM) which speaks of unfreezing, changing and refreezing would be emphasized in this research.
Force field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in the field of social sciences, for diagnosing situations. It will be useful when looking at the variables involved in planning and implementing a change program and will undoubtedly be of use in team building projects, when attempting to overcome resistance to change.
Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur. On one side there is the driving force for change and on the other there are the restraining forces. Equilibrium is attained when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces, this demonstrates the production level. The production level will be lowered when restraining forces are increased and raised when driving forces are increased. This is demonstrated in Figure 1.
In order to initiate change, Lewin has recommended a three stage model, unfreezing, change and refreezing.
Unfreezing speaks of the organization and its people willingness to accept change and let go of the old ways it is like waking up and taking the first step.
Change speaks of the transition period it is the journey rather than a