Chapter 13 Learning Guide – Urban Patterns
Key Issue 4 – Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges?
Pgs. 424 – 434
1. What is annexation?
Process of legally adding land area to a city.
2. What is required before an area can be annexed by a city?
Majority of the residents in the affected area have to vote in favor of being annexed.
3. In the past, why did peripheral areas desire annexation?
City offered better services such as water supply, sewage disposal, trash pickup, police & fire protection.
4. What has changed?
Resident prefer to organize their own services rather than pay city taxes for them
5. Define city:
Urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit
6. What are the three (3) basic characteristics of a city?
Ability to raise taxes
Responsibility for providing essential services
7. Define urbanized area:
The city and the surrounding built-up suburbs.
8. What is the functional area of a city?
Metropolitan Statistical Area
9. What does the MSA include?
- Urbanized area with a population of at least 50,000
- The county in which the city is located
- Adjacent counties with high population density & large percentage of resident working in the central city’s county
10. Define council of government:
Cooperative agency consisting of representatives from the various local governments in the region.
11. What is a Megalopolis?
12. What is the Megalopolis from Boston to D.C. called?
Boswash or Boswash Corridor
The Peripheral Model
13. List the elements of an urban area according to the peripheral model.
Urban area with an inner city surrounded by residential & business area tied together by a ring road or beltway
14. Complete the table below regarding peripheral areas.
Problems They Lack
Problems They Have
Severe social, physical & economic inner-city problems
Sprawl & segregation
15. Define edge city:
Nodes of business & consumer services that are on the edge of an urban area
16. Describe the density gradient of an urban area.
Number of houses per unit of land diminishes as the distance from the center of the city increases
17. In what two (2) ways has the density gradient changed in recent years?
Fewer people living in the center creating a gap
Fewer differences in density within urban areas
18. Define sprawl:
Progressive spread of development over the landscape
19. What is meant by the statement: the “periphery of U.S. cities looks like Swiss cheese”?
Developers favor detached isolated sites so there are pockets of development next to gaps of open space
20. What has prevented the peripheries of European cities from looking like Swiss cheese?
Cities are surrounded by greenbelts where new housing is built in old suburbs inside greenbelt or in new towns beyond the greenbelt
21. What is smart growth?
Legislation and regulation to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
22. Describe how “smart growth” laws have been designed in the following states?
Oregon & Tennessee
Prohibits state from funding new highways & projects that would extend suburban sprawl & destroy farmland
Created growth boundaries for new development
23. In what two (2) ways are suburban areas segregated?
24. What is a zoning ordinance?
Prevented the mixing of land uses within the same district
25. What is the strongest criticism of U.S. suburbs?
Low-income folks & minorities are unable to live in suburbs due to cost & unfriendliness of residents
Transportation & Suburbanization
26. Fill in the flow chart describing how developments in transportation affected the residential pattern of American cities.
People lived in crowded cities because they...
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