STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TEST #1
1. Formal analysis: describing appearance
2. Medium: what something is made from
a. Wood, metal, canvas, etc.
3. Style: characteristics of an artwork—can be characteristic of an artist, culture, period etc.
4. Stylization- often simplified, abstracted or “generic” representation
5. Iconography- subject/meaning/symbolism of a work
a. Literal- narrative or story
b. Symbolic- political, religious, etc.
c. Aesthetic- decorative or formal
1) What are 5 characteristics that help to define a civilization?
1. The cultures revolved around urban centers
2. They developed a written language, which implies that a common language was used
3. Various groups within the social system engaged in trade or commerce
4. People shared a religion in common
5. The society had a centralized government, which suggests an organized central bureaucracy and a stratified set of social classes existed in order to ensure the survival and protection of the group and control of the government
a. Historical Context
i. Settled (agriculture) c. 6000 BCE ii. “Civilization” began c. 3500 BCE
1. “Civilization” = cities, language, trade, religion, government / division of labor
b. Religious Beliefs
i. Polytheistic- belief in multiple Gods
c. Social & Political Structure
i. Hierarchical scale ii. Gods were all powerful iii. Semi-divine King closest to the Gods
3) Mesopotamia civilization established c. 3500 BCE (Sumerians) & then conquered by the Greeks c. 330 BCE
4) Mesopotamian Sculpture:
a. Relief sculpture
b. Freestanding sculpture; Subtractive method
a. Human-made mountain to reach the gods
b. Originally made of mud brick with wood temple on top
c. Site of rituals ad processions (religious theater)
6) Hammurabi- great ruler that emerged in the early 1700s B.C.E. His capital was Babylon & it became the hub of the world (for a while). Babylonian