Instruments

Topics: Musical instrument, String instrument, Hornbostel-Sachs Pages: 8 (1546 words) Published: October 10, 2014
Idiophone
An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings ormembranes. It is the first of the four main divisions in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. The early classification of Victor-Charles Mahillon called this group of instruments autophones. Most percussion instruments that are not drums are idiophones. Hornbostel-Sachs divides idiophones into four main sub-categories. The first division is the struck idiophones (sometimes called concussion idiophones). This includes most of the non-drum percussion instruments familiar in the West. They include all idiophones made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand (like the wood block, singing bowl, steel tongue drum, triangle or marimba)—or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion (like maracas or flexatone). Various types of bells fall into both categories. The other three sub-divisions are rarer. They are plucked idiophones, such as the Jew's harp, amplified cactus, mazanki, kouxian, dan moi,music box or mbira (lamellophone / thumb piano); blown idiophones, of which there are a very small number of examples, the Aeolsklavier being one; and friction idiophones, such as the singing bowl, glass harmonica, glass harp, turntable, verrophone, daxophone, styrophone,musical saw, or nail violin (a number of pieces of metal or wood rubbed with a bow).[1] Other classifications use six main sub-categories: Concussion idiophones are instruments that produce sound by being struck against one another. Percussion idiophones produce sound by being struck with a non-vibrating foreign object. Examples of non-vibrating objects aremallets, hammers, and sticks. Rattle idiophones are shaken. Scraper idiophones are instruments that are scraped with a stick or other foreign objects to give off a sound. Plucked idiophones produce sound by plucking a flexible tongue from within the instrument itself. Lastly,friction idiophones are rubbed to increase vibration and sound intensity.[2] Idiophones are made of materials that give off unique sounds. The majority of idiophones are made out of glass, metal, ceramics, and wood. Idiophones are considered part of the percussion section in an orchestra. A number of idiophones that are normally struck, such as vibraphone bars and cymbals, can also be bowed. Chordophone

A chordophone is a musical instrument that makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. What many would call string instruments are classified as chordophones. Violins, guitars, lyres, and harps are examples. However, the word also embraces instruments that many westerners would hesitate to call string instruments, such as the musical bow and the piano (which, although sometimes called a string instrument, is also called a keyboard instrument and a percussion instrument). Hornbostel-Sachs divides chordophones into two main groups: instruments without a resonator as an integral part of the instrument (which have the classification number 31); and instruments with such a resonator (which have the classification number 32). Most western instruments fall into the second group, but the piano and harpsichord fall into the first. Hornbostel and Sachs' criterion for determining which sub-group an instrument falls into is that if the resonator can be removed without destroying the instrument, then it is classified as 31. The idea that the piano's casing, which acts as a resonator, could be removed without destroying the instrument, may seem odd, but if the action and strings of the piano were taken out of its box, it could still be played. This is not true of the violin, because the string passes over a bridge located on the resonator box, so removing the resonator would mean the...
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