Carl Rogers introduced the ‘self-theory’ which shows how the clients viewed oneself and how therapy would help them to change this view (Kleinman, 2012). He was more focusing towards how one can help themselves with goals and less on being diagnosed to which Carl Rogers refer it as ‘fully-functioning person’ where one must be well adjusted, balanced and interested to know things.
According to Kleinman (2012), Carl Rogers has his own theory where he rejected both behaviourism and psychoanalysis. His theory explains that a person conducts in unquestionable ways how they view each situation and from that, they will know how to deal or judge things. This is what he calls as ‘self-actualization’. When ‘self-actualization’ is achieved, a person will then become a ‘fully-functioning person’. Rogers split this term into five different characteristic which are open to experience, existential living, trust feelings, creativity and fulfilled life (McLeod, 2014). Self-actualization is accomplished when a person fulfils their potential and becomes fully-functioning, achieving the highest level of ‘human-beingness’ The state of congruence is where someone’s ideal-self is almost the same or is in uniform with their actual experiences. The opposite of being congruent is incongruence where a difference is found between one’s ideal-self and their experiences. Because everyone sees themselves as well-suited with their self-image, to attain a defensive characteristic or emotion represents an automatic feeling such as being in denial to feel good oneself and avoid undesirable feelings. Carl Rogers also stressed on how people from the surrounding too, plays an important role in someone’s life. He believes that everyone needs to feel positiveness by others because human beings are endowed with natural desires to be valued, loved, respected and treated with affection. He separated this explanation into two ideas, unconditional positive regard and conditionally positive regard....
References: Thorne, B. & Sanders, P (2013). Carl Rogers (3rd ed.). Singapore, SAGE Publication.
Kleinman, P. (2012). The Science Of The Mind: Psychology Facts & Basics. Avon, USA: Advantange Quest Publications.
McLeod, S. (2014). Carl Rogers . Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html
Smith, M.K. (2004). Carl Rogers and informal education. The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education. Retrieved from www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rogers.htm
Hall, K. J. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/rogers.htm#Theory
Kirschenbaum, H. & Henderson, V. L. (1989). The Carl Rogers Readers : Selection from the Lifetime Work of America’s Preeminent Psychologist, author of On Becoming a Person and A Way Being. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.my/books?id=CRnR87UQbMwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Howard+Kirschenbaum+and+Valerie+Land+Henderson&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i6z8Uo6zOsmjiAelzoGoCw&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Howard%20Kirschenbaum%20and%20Valerie%20Land%20Henderson&f=false
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