The Cahokian civilization, one of the largest Native American tribes, was indigenous to the Midwest. Cahokia is also known as “the city history forgot.” This complex and sophisticated society challenges the stereotypical beliefs of Native American as being primitive, ignorant savages. The Cahokian civilization provides the basis for political, economic, and social developments that “changed the course of human history.” ( Timothy Pauketat) After reading Timothy Pauketat’s insightful essay, “ Cahokia: A Pre-Columbian American City”, I was intrigued by the Cahokia’s people and culture. This society quickly evolved from a village to an elaborate city. The Cahokian complex architectural aspects included better homes, pyramids and plazas. Through expansion, their beliefs and customs were diffused into other civilizations. Due to warfare, many complex advancements were designed to protect the central city. An elaborate 15, 000 log wall was built to defend their city. The advanced Cahokian society was developed prior to any European interaction. Having known very little about such a complex and elaborate civilization, I was intrigued by many of the Cahokian developments and beliefs. Their centralized authority, the nature and the extent of their influence over vast areas, are aspects of many other European civilizations. This essay challenged many of my prior ideas and beliefs about the Native Americans. The city planning and the organization of the city of Cahokia resembled the city of ancient Rome. The Cahokian civilization used the method of Cahokianization to expand and spread their ideologies throughout their territory. Similarly, the ancient Romans used the method of Romanization to expand and spread their empire. Both societies developed and utilized similar military tactics and strategies. Under the rule of Constantine I, the Romans built a wall to protect their city from invaders, the Cahokians built a wall made of logs for

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