Mango (Magnifera indicia) is a major tropical fruit that is widely consumed in the society. It is considered the dominant tropical fruit variety in the world (Sarris 2003) with total production worldwide of about 25 million metric tonnes a year. It is a succulent, delicious fruit with a high nutritional content that is commonly consumed when ripe. Mango is a seasonal fruit that is native to Southeast Asia. As a result of its sweet taste and the large quantity available, mango is further processed into various forms such as puree, juices, nectars, concentrates, pickles and chutneys, canned slices, and dried fruit, products which have worldwide popularity. Mango consists of between 33-85% edible pulp, with 9-40% inedible kernel and 7-24% inedible peel. During processing of mango, large amount of waste by-product are generated particularly mango peels because the kernel are often reused to plant Mango. However, due to the inhibition of seed germination properties of polyphenols present in the mango peel, disposal has posed a challenge for most manufacturing industries and consumers. In addition, mango kernels have been found to be excellent source of fat, natural antioxidants, starch, flour and feed. The utilization of mango peel to relieve environmental threats as well as economic purposes has just recently been investigated in detail. The peels have been researched to be used as a source of dietary fibre and natural anti-oxidant. Dietary fibre (DF) is indigestible plant matter comprising of compounds such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, β-glucans and gums. In the case of fruits and vegetables, cell walls and parenchymatous tissues are the dietary fiber supply. Dietary fibre is grouped into two major classes: polymers soluble in water (SDF), such as pectin and gums, and those that are insoluble (IDF) – cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. However, our primary concern is the SDF class, particularly pectin production. Pectin is a group of carbohydrates used as a stabilizer, and gelling and thickening agent by the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. It is a complex carbohydrate, which is found both in the cell walls and between the cell walls of plants, helping to regulate the flow of water in between cells and keeping them rigid. Some plants begin to lose part of this complex carbohydrate as they age. The pectin content in all fruit is generally higher when the fruit is just barely ripe and diminishes as it matures from fully ripe to overripe. The process of ripening involves the breakdown of pectin, which softens the fruit as it ripens. The application of pectin is primarily for stabilizing, gelling and thickening food. It is evidently the reason that jams and marmalades have a jelly-like consistency otherwise they would just be sweet juice. Also pectin is responsible for the confectionery jelly used as dessert to give a good gel structure, a clean bite and good flavour release. For acidic protein drinks, such as drinking yogurt, pectin is used to stabilize it. It also improves the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice based drinks and as a fat substitute in baked goods. It is also considered a substitute for artificial sweeteners in the food industry For medicinal purposes, pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used against constipation and diarrhoea. Until 2002, it was one of the main ingredients used in Kaopectate a drug to combat diarrhoea, along with kaolinite. Pectin is also used in throat lozenges as ademulcent. Pectin is useful in wound healing preparations and specialty medical adhesives, such as colostomy devices. In cosmetic products, pectin acts as stabilizer. It is used as a natural texture powder for paste, ointment, oils, creams, hair tonic, shampoo and body lotion. Another industry that uses pectin is the cigar industry where pectin is considered an excellent substitute for vegetable glue and many cigar...
References: 1. Apsara Madhav (2002). Journal of Tropical Agriculture. CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTIN EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT FRUIT WASTES, 53-55.
5. Kalapathy, U. (2001). Effect of acid extraction and alcohol precipitation conditions on the yield and purity of soy hull pectin.
10. Thakur, B. R. (1997). Chemistry and uses of pectin a review.
August 16, 2013
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