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Bullying in Schools

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Bullying in Schools 1 PRAIRIE VIEW A&M UNIVERSITY THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

EXPERIENCES, PERCEPTIONS, AND ATTITUDES OF THIRD GRADERS TOWARDS BULLYING

A RESEARCH REPORT RESEARCH ADMIN 5163 BY Jimmy C. Clark. PRAIRIE VIEW, TEXAS 2008

Bullying in Schools 2 Table of Contents Page Abstract……………………………………………………………………………3 Chapter 1. Statement of the Problem Introduction-Background and Content………………………………………….5 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………...10 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………..11 Research Questions…………………………………………………………....11 Null Hypothesis………………………………………………………………..11 Significance of the Problem…………………………………………………....11 Operational Definition………………………………………………………….12 Chapter 2. Review of Literature……………………………………………………12 Chapter 3. Method…………………………………………………………………...20 Identification of the Research……………………………………………………20 Design……………………………………………………………………………20 Target Population………………………………………………………………..21 Sample of Participants…………………………………………………………...22 Sampling of Procedure…………………………………………………………..22 The Instrument…………………………………………………………………...23 Statistical Techniques……………………………………………………………27 Summary of Research Procedure………………………………………………..27 References……………………………………………………………………………28

Bullying in Schools 3 Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate third grade experiences, perceptions, and attitudes towards bullying at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy in the Academic Interdisciplinary Academy. A review of the literature suggest that bullying in the United States and abroad is a common and potentially damaging form of violence among children in age groups from elementary to high school. The research question is – What are the experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of third graders towards bullying in the Academic Interdisciplinary Academy ? The research hypothesis is that third grade students who have experienced bullying will have a negative perception and attitude towards bullying than those who have not experienced bullying. Forty sample participants will be selected from four third grade classrooms. The student demographics of the sample participants are comprised of African American, Hispanic, and Economically Disadvantage students. Descriptive statistics using the measure of central tendency was performed to show the mean average of collected responses. The mean takes into account, or includes, each and every score in its computations. The third grade students enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) and Bilingual classrooms. The researcher will use random selection to choose forty third grade students from four classes. The Primary School Student Survey (PSSS) will be used to measure student’s experiences, perceptions, and attitudes towards bullying at their school, as well as other relevant demographic data. The number and frequency of specific bullying behaviors reported by students indicates that, telling lies, getting in trouble for picking, and being teased were the most frequently reported form of bullying behavior. More students perceived that adults at their schools try to protect them from bullying. The majority of all students said they would tell their teacher if they were bullied.

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Chapter I
Introduction
Bullying has been a common problem among children and young people, for many years. However, only recently has this issue been addressed by educators, school boards, and in the media. Many bullying incidents involve students who are labeled as “different.” Take for instance, some students who fall victim to bullying based on their sex, race, religion, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, or personal traits or habits that are perceived as uncommon. This is no new thing, but in recent years bullying acts have become more violent and lethal. Bullying has also been considered a contributing factor in violent acts. Perpetrators in recent school shooting incidents described feelings of being persecuted, bullied, or threatened by their peers (“National Bullying Awareness Campaign” 2005).
Consequences of bullying include decreased student interest in school, increased absences, and decreased concentration levels for students. Those who witness this behavior “bystanders” can also be affected by acts of bullying. Many bystanders feel angry and helpless because they do not know what to do. They worry about becoming a target themselves and feel guilty for not taking action (“National Bullying Awareness Campaign”2005). Bullying is any intimidating, hurtful behavior, such as, pushing or shoving on the playground. Or an ongoing series of deliberate actions, such as, name-calling day after day (“Bullying,”2003). Many children complain that they are teased, called names, pushed, hit pinched or kicked, having their money or other possessions taken. Bullying

Bullying in Schools 5 can also include abusive text messages or emails, being ignored or left out, and being attacked or abused because of religion, gender sexuality, disability, appearance or ethnic or racial origin (Canter, & Cohn 2003).
Bullying can happen almost anywhere. Some students may even say that their bully is a former friend with whom they are no longer associated with (Canter, & Cohn 2003). When children are bullied it tears them down mentally and physically. They are humiliated and frightened, and younger people often feel powerless to stop it. It not only just affects a child’s social life. Victims of bullying tend to lose concentration and skip lessons. Even those who have always performed well in school may start performing poorly in school after bullying starts (“Bullying,” 2003). Sometimes the thought of going to school is so terrifying that they attempt suicide or carry the effects of bullying long into their adult lives (“Bullying,” 2003).
Most people think that bullying only happens between a certain genders, preferably boys, but girls are falling into this category day by day. Boy bullies tend to resort to one-on-one violence or threats of violence. Girl bullies most often resort to bullying as a group by socially excluding the victim or spreading rumors about the victim (“Bullying,”2003). Children who are bullies tend to be very popular amongst their peers. Kids who hang out with them look up to them as if they are “cool” or that their actions are somewhat justified (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003).

Bullying in Schools 6 Unfortunately, bullying can have a long-term effect on a child. Even long after the verbal attacks have stopped a child can still suffer from it. They have lack of self-esteem and have trouble making friends. Victims often fear school and consider school to be an unsafe and unhappy place (Banks, 1997). Many students who are victims of bullying want to stay home from school in order to avoid being bullied. Another long-term consequence of bullying is that both victims and perpetrators are heading for trouble and are at risk for serious violence (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003). Teens (particularly boys) who bully are more likely to engage in other social/delinquent behavior (e.g., vandalism, shoplifting, truancy, and drug use) into adulthood. They are four times more likely than nonbullies to be convicted of crimes by age 24, over 60 percent of bullies tend to have at least one criminal conviction (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003).
Bullying is a major problem that occurs in the social environment of a student. The bully tends to be more aggressive in social settings where the teacher and parents are unaware of the extent of the problem. In some studies, student surveys revealed a low percentage of students seem to believe adults will help. Students seem to believe that adult intervention is infrequent and ineffective and, that telling adults will only bring to more harassment from bullies (National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center, 2001).Given the situation of bullying occurring in social environments where adults are unaware of what is going on leads to school implementing effective interventions to help resolve this issue.

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An effective intervention should involve the entire school community rather than focus on the perpetrators and victims alone. Most intervention programs emphasize the need to develop whole-school bullying policies, implement curricular measures, improve school ground environment, and empower students through conflict resolution, peer counseling, and assertiveness training (National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center, 2001). In the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center article (2001),
Olweus details an approach that involves interventions at the school, class, and individual levels. It includes the following components:
◦ An initial questionnaire can be distributed to students and adults.
◦A parental awareness campaign can be conducted during parent-teacher conference days.
◦ Teachers can work with students at the class level to develop class rules against bullying.
◦ Other components of anti-bullying programs include individualized interventions with the bullies and victims. This proposal will be conducted at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy School at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy in Southwest Houston, Texas. (AIA), founded in 2000, is located in southwest Houston three-fourth an urban community with thriving businesses, active churches, and a variety of recreational facilities. An exemplary education is provided for students in prekindergarten through grade eighth. Special education, gifted/talented, English as a second language (ESL), and an English–Spanish bilingual program are among the

Bullying in Schools 8 support strands available. I selected Academic Interdisciplinary Academy third grade students, because as a third grade teacher at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy has numerous episodes were students have complained about other students harassing, teasing, and making threats of harm (Above & Beyond Committee, 2005). Every child deserves the right to feel safe and protected in their schools. Bullying is a well known behavior that can lead to violent acts and can affect the ability of students progress academically and socially. All schools should have an effective intervention plan that involves all adults and students ensuring that school environment is safe and fear free (National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center, 2001).
Banks (1997) states that bullying takes on many direct behaviors, such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting and stealing that are initiated by one or more students against a victim). Sometimes bullying can lead to violence, for example, the 1999 incident that occurred at Columbine High School. Bullying is also the most common form of violence in our society; between 15% and 30% of students are bullies or victims (Canter, & Cohn 2003). Between 1994 and 1999, there were 253 violent deaths in schools, 51 casualties were the result of multiple death events. Bullying is often a factor in school related deaths (Canter, & Cohn 2003).
Statement of the Problem A review of the literature suggest that bullying in the United States and abroad is a common and potentially damaging form of violence among children in age groups from elementary to high school. Those who engage in bullying or the victim groups tend to be associated with school dropout, poor psychosocial adjustment, criminal activity and other

Bullying in Schools 9 negative long-term consequences. A similar concern is found in Academic Interdisciplinary Academy in Houston, Texas. Knowing how students feel about bullying is useful for schools to know in order to implement effective intervention programs.
Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to investigate third grade experiences, perceptions, and attitudes towards bullying at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy in the Academic Interdisciplinary Academy.
Research Question What are the experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of third graders towards bullying in the Academic Interdisciplinary Academy ?
Research Hypothesis Third grade students who have experienced bullying will have a negative perception and attitude towards bullying than those who have not experienced bullying.
(H1:µ1<µ2 ) .
Null Hypothesis There is no significant difference in the attitudes and perceptions of third graders who have experienced bullying than those who have not experienced bullying. (H0:µ1 = µ2)
Significance of the Problem This study could significantly impact the prevalence of bullying and how its effects are seriously underestimated by many children and adults.

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Operational Terms
Bully- is someone who directs physical, verbal, or psychological aggression or harassment toward others, with the goal of gaining power over or dominating another individual.
Victim- is someone who repeatedly is exposed to aggression from peers in the form of physical attacks, verbal assaults, or psychological abuse.
Bullying- any hurtful, intimidating behavior (such as a shove on the playground). Relational Aggression- individuals who exclude students from a group activity or they might threaten to not be someone’s friend unless he or she does what they say.
Bystander- one who sees or looks upon something such as bullying without getting involved.
Chapter II: Review of Literature

Bullying is a very widespread problem in our schools and communities (Canter, & Cohn 2003). According to a study by the National Crime Prevention Council (June 2003), six out of ten American teenagers witness bullying in school once a day. Those numbers have greatly increased since 2003. Research indicates there is more bullying in boys than girls, though this difference decreases when considering indirect aggression; such as verbal threats (Canter, & Cohn 2003).
In the newsletter for Prevent Child Abuse of North Carolina (June 2003) states that bullying tends to start in elementary school, peaks in sixth through eighth grade, and persists into high school and adult life. Acts of bullying often, but not always occurs in public places. As educators we all know that most cases of bullying tend to go unreported. Although much bullying is unreported, it is estimated that bullying occurs approximately once
Bullying in Schools 11 every seven minutes (“Bullying”, 2003). Students may feel that their teachers, parents or administrators brush off the issue of one being bullied. Sometimes as if the victim may have provoked the bully to tease them. A large part of society views bullying as a natural part of the growing up process (Mount Vernon City Schools, 2006).Some would argue that this statement is true and some would argue this statement is not true. There is a lot of research that shows that being a victim of a bully can affect students’ self esteem and how they approach school (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003). Students who are often bullied by other students may have serious levels of depression and anxiety, and they are more likely than others to think about suicide (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003).
Victims of bullying also are more likely than other students to report that they do not want to go to school because of fear of being bullied (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003). In some instances a lot of students who are bullied will begin to bully other students. For these and other reasons, it is highly important that schools take an active stand against bullying.
Bullying often takes place at school and also on the bus (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003). It can also take place when a youth walk to and from school. Bullying is more likely to take place when a large crowd or group are supervised by a small number of adult, including lunchtime, recess, physical education, and when students change classes (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003).

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A lot of time this can also occur when a teacher’s attention is focused on something other than the students in the classroom. For example when a teacher is talking with a visitor in the classroom or when he/she has their back turned away from students. The National Youth Violence Resource Center (2001) reports that bullying occurs more frequently among boys than girls; teenage boys are more likely to bully others and to be the targets of bullies. Girls are more likely to tease other females about their looks or how they dress. Boys can bully both girls and boys with the same actions. Often times when boys bully girls it takes on the form of verbal, sexual harassment, physical or mental empowerment. Both boys and girls engage in what is called relational aggression (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003).When individuals use relational aggression they often want to keep others out of a group activity (a class group activity or game). Often times they tell another kid that they will not be their friend if they will not do want they say. Girls are more likely to bully each other through social isolation (“Bullying”, 2003). Bullying often involves groups of students picking on another student (“Bullying”, 2003). Normally, these groups have a member that is considered to be the “ring leader” with the other members following their dictates. These students are not often involved in the bullying; they tend to only be bystanders. In a study of junior high and high school students, over 88 percent said they witnessed bullying in their schools (“Bullying”, 2003). Health Resources and Service Administration (2003) states that children and youth are often reluctant to try to stop bullying because they are afraid of being bullied themselves, because they want to be part of a popular group, or because they simply are not sure how to help. The Virginia Effective

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Practices Project (“Intervention Strategies”, 2005) reports that student bystanders suffer decreased self esteem because they are afraid to defend the victim or report incidents to adults.
Any child can be a victim of bullying. Adults should be very cautious that they do not blame or make a child feel that they are at fault when they are bullied. However, knowing the characteristics of children who are bullied may help adults identify children who are likely targets of bullying and help protect them from abuse (Limber, & Nation, 1998). Research indicates that children who are bullied tend to be more socially isolated than other children (Canter, & Cohn 2003).These children may seem to be easy targets for bullying because they have few friends to help protect them (They also may be shy, sensitive, or insecure children) (Health Resources and Service Administration, 2003).There are no single factor that cause children or youth to become a bully. Instead there are well known factors in a child’s daily environment that tend to contribute to bullying behavior (Health Resources and Service Administration 2003).
Research shows that students who bully are more likely to witness violence in their home, have little parental supervision, and lack warmth and involvement from their parents. Children who bully are also likely to “hang out” with others who bully and feel that they gain their popularity or “coolness” by teasing other students (Health Resources and Service Administration, 2003).
There are long-term consequences of bullying behavior in youth. Youth who bully others, more than likely are heading for trouble and are at risk for serious violence
(Health Resources and Service Administration, 2003). Teens who bully are more likely to engage in other antisocial/delinquent behavior (e.g., vandalism, shoplifting, truancy, and drug Bullying in Schools 14 use) into adulthood. They are four times more likely than nonbullies to be convicted of crimes by age 24, with 60 percent of bullies having at least one criminal conviction (Canter, & Cohn 2003). Schools play a very important roll in stopping bullying among youth. While approaches that simply crack down on individual bullies are seldom effective, when there is school-wide commitment to end bullying, it can be reduced by up to 50 percent (Canter, & Cohn 2003).One approach that can be effective focuses on changing school and classroom climates. These approaches normally involve raising awareness about bullying, increasing teacher and parent involvement and supervision, forming clear rules and strong social norms against bullying, and providing support and protection for all students. This approach involves every adult working within the local school. Adults become aware of the extent of bullying at the school, and they involve themselves in changing the situation, rather than looking the other way (National Youth Violence Resource Center, 2001). Students pledge not to bully other students, to help students who are bullied, and to make a point to include students who are left out (Canter, & Cohn 2003). Knowledge about how bullying can be prevented has increased dramatically in the last two decades. Research has taught us much about preventing bullying, about treating the victims of bullying, and about stopping children from bullying others. As with other violence and injury prevention efforts, bullying is best addressed by a comprehensive approach involving education, the school environment, and the creation and enforcement of consistent discipline programs (Canter, & Cohn 2003). Bullying in Schools 15
Bullying generally takes place in social contexts in which teachers and parents are generally unaware of the extent of the problem and other children are either reluctant to get involved or simply do not know how to help (Health Resources and Service Administration, 2003). Children who are bullied need the help and support of their parents. The most effective protection for the child is to develop self confidence, independence and a willingness to take action when it is needed (“Bullying,” 2003). Some possible methods that parents can use to aid in effective protection are:
◦ Teach the child to be assertive not aggressive.
◦ Express to the child that the bully’s behavior is the problem rather than something being wrong with the child.
◦ Encourage the child to tell an adult if they are being bullied.
◦ Explain to the child the difference between telling and tattling (gossiping about an incident)
◦ Make sure the child is the part of a buddy system to and from school and in their neighborhood.
◦ Tell the school your concerns for the child’s safety.
Other Public Health Practitioners can also support intervention programs in schools. The following six recommendations from the National Bullying Prevention Campaign’s Health and Safety Organizations Implementation Working Group (2004) provide examples of how public health professionals can help prevent bullying and its consequences. Public health professionals can do the following:
◦ Ask screening questions during wellness exams and patient visits to monitor for risk factors related to bullying or being bullied – and intervene quickly when such risk factors are found.
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◦ Convene multidisciplinary community-based coalitions to improve coordination of the assessment, intake, and referral of children/adolescents for treatment, counseling, and other community services.
◦ Support the development of safe school policies and plans that specifically address bullying behaviors and bias-motivated harassment or prejudices.
◦ Partner with schools to implement comprehensive bullying prevention programs.
◦ Assist in evaluating the impact of interventions locally, and advocate for quality research nationally. ◦ Promote training and continued education on bullying prevention strategies in health, safety, and medical fields, and clinical supervision and guidance teaching programs.
In addition, Maternal Child Mental Health Bureau (MCHB) and other public health professionals can do the following:
◦ Implement and support public education for parents, teachers, and others who are in contact with children and adolescents to help them recognize and intervene in episodes of bullying.
◦ Contribute epidemiological expertise and the public health perspective to refine the evidence available on the causes, consequences, and prevention of bullying.
Several districts have incorporated programs that they feel may reduce bullying in schools. Elementary schools at Alief ISD and Houston ISD in Houston, Texas have implemented a violence prevention curriculum entitled Second Step (“Second Step”, 2005). This research- based program is designed to help reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in children. Social-emotional skills include empathy, impulse control, problem solving, and emotion management. Houston ISD works closely with the DePelchin Children’s
Bullying in Schools 17
Center to reduce bullying on its campuses. The Substance Abuse and Health Services Administration and the Criminal Justice Division of the Governor’s Office will provide $213,243 to help operate the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program on several of their campuses (“HISD Board to Stand up to Proposed Anti-Bullying Program”, 2005). The program is reputed to reduce bullying among children, improve the social climate of classrooms, and reduce antisocial behavior, such as vandalism and truancy (“HISD Board to Stand up to Proposed Anti-Bullying Program”, 2005). Children who are bullied need the support and help of the adults in their life. Protecting children and teaching them how to handle bullies will make their lives a safer place. Chapter III
Method
Identification of Research
The type of research method that will be used for this study is descriptive (survey) research. A descriptive (survey) research determines and describes the way things are (Gay, & Airasain, 2003). It can also compare how two subgroups view issues and topics. The rationale for selecting survey research for this study is that it provides the most appropriate strategy for collecting relevant data to answer the research question posed in chapter 1- “What are the experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of third graders towards bullying in the Academic Interdisciplinary Academy ?” This study will utilize descriptive research with two subgroups-those students who have experienced bullying and those who have not experienced bullying. The researcher will use a self- Bullying in Schools 18 report questionnaire to obtain data on students’ attitude towards bullying. The researcher is aware that some of the third graders being surveyed may have difficulty interpreting some of the questions, because of low reading comprehension levels, so the questionnaire will be read to the students for clarification. The oral reading strategy of the questionnaire will increase participant response.
The Design The variables to be investigated through the use of survey research are-“Bullying experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of third grade students in the Academic Interdisciplinary Academy”. There are two levels of this variable- Those who have experienced bullying (X1) and those who have not experienced bullying (X2). In this proposed study, two groups of third graders (those who experienced bullying and those who have not experienced bullying) will be surveyed to determine their perceptions and attitudes towards the problem of bullying in their individual school. Target population The target population for this study is comprised of all third grade students at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy School. Academic Interdisciplinary Academy is located in the southwest area of Houston, Texas. Academic Interdisciplinary Academy is compromised of three hundred and thirty-eight students in grades ranging from Pre-K-8th. . It has a multicultural population of African-American students (60.6%), Hispanic (40.9%). The community is surrounded by Vietnamese, Korean, and Chinese restaurants and other Asian/Pacific Islander businesses. The target population for this study contains seventy-seven third graders in three English as a Second Language (ESL), fifty-seven students, and one Bilingual classroom, twenty students. The student’s ages range from seven to nine years old with the majority of its population being Hispanic and African-American. Academic Interdisciplinary Academy School is a Title I funded Bullying in Schools 19 school with (85.7%) of students who economically disadvantaged. Academic Interdisciplinary Academy School is also implements the 21st Century Community Learning program, a grant program authorized under Title IV as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act, that provides after school tutoring and enrichment activities that extend learning time (“No Child Left Behind”, 2002). Third grade students participate in the Second Step program designed to help reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in children (“Second Step”, 2005). Special education, gifted/talented, English as a second language (ESL), and an English–Spanish bilingual program are among the support strands available. Students are from low income families who live in apartments that surround the schools playground and stretch as far as Gessner Road. Third grade student Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) cumulative met standard scores profiled African
American (95%), Hispanic (88%), and Economically Disadvantage (90%). Third grade student Math Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) cumulative met standard scores profiled African American (74%), Hispanic (77%), and Economically Disadvantage (80%).
Sample of Participants Forty sample participants will be selected from four third grade classrooms to participate in the study. The student demographics of the sample participants are comprised of African American, Hispanic, and Economically Disadvantage students The researcher knows that it is important for this study to select samples that are representative of their respective populations and that the characteristics and experiences of the groups are as equal as possible on all important variables except the independent variable. The four third grade classrooms vary in class size; three
Bullying in Schools 20 classes are English as Second Language (ESL) classrooms totaling fifty-seven students who are African American, Hispanic, and Economically disadvantaged students that speak only English. The Bilingual classroom has a total of twenty students of Hispanic heritage that speak both English and Spanish.
Sampling Procedure The desired population is seventy-seven third grade students enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) and Bilingual classrooms. The researcher will use random selection to choose forty third grade students from four classes. Of those students thirty third graders will be selected from three English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms and ten third graders from the Bilingual classroom. Each third grade classroom are representative of the socioeconomic population at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy. The researcher will ask each third grade teacher to write the names of the students in their classroom. The researcher will then compile the seventy-seven names of students into two separate draw boxes (one box with the names of the students from the three English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms and the other box with names of students from the Bilingual classroom) and draw thirty names from the English as a Second Language (ESL) box and ten from the Bilingual box. The researcher knows that by drawing names from two separate boxes will ensure that the sample of participants will represent the target population. The drawn sample participants consisted of eighteen female students and twelve male students from the three English as a Second Language (ESL) classes and from the Bilingual class five female and five male names were drawn. Out of the eighteen (ESL) female students, twelve were African-American, six were Hispanic and of the males, four were African-American, and three were Hispanic.

Bullying in Schools 21
Of the ten students selected from the Bilingual class, five were females and five were male, all were Hispanic.
Instruments
The Primary School Student Survey (PSSS) is designed to measure students who have and have not experienced bullying and their perceptions and attitudes towards the problem of bullying in their individual school, as well as other relevant demographic data. The (PSSS) consists of ten questions, requiring quantitative responses. Students’ experiences, perceptions and attitudes will be answered in yes/no format. Students’ experiences of bullying will be measured by a series of questions that ask them to circle yes/no to the particular kinds of bullying behavior(s) experienced. Five questions measuring experiences include teasing and name calling, someone doing something to start a fight, being pushed, hit or beaten up, someone getting in trouble for picking, and telling lies. Three questions ask about students’ bullying-related perceptions. The first question asks students if they thought students were bullied because of their cultural background or looks. The second question inquired how they perceived bullying as a problem in their school, and the third question asked if adults in their school try to protect them from bullying. Two questions ascertained students’ bullying-related attitudes. The first question asked whether students would report incidents of bullying to teachers, the second whether they could count on adults help to protect them from being hurt or bullied by other students.
The National Institutes of Health (2000) recently reported that in the United States alone, bullying affects more than 5 million students in grades 6 through 11. One out of seven students reported being victimized. The violence that erupted at several schools in highly publicized shooting incidents in the late 1990s spurred several State legislatures to propose laws requiring schools to adopt
Bullying in Schools 22 anti-bullying policies. (PSSS) was developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) (2003) because of the severity of the concern of school safety and bullying in response to this critical issue. The intended use of the questionnaire will allow this critical message to be directed to the children, parents and schools affected by the issue of bullying. In 2001 a pilot test was implemented throughout various schools in the United States.
Questioning of the instrument observes the experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of the third graders who have and have not experienced bullying. The instrument measures a construct related evidence of validity that will support the research hypothesis. In order for an instrument to be valid it has to measure the degree of what the study is or what is to be measured. The reliability of the instrument using a yes or no format provides consistency of measuring the degree of what is supposed to be measured in the study.
Statistical Techniques The statistical techniques that will be used for analyzing the data are both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics will allow the researcher to describe, or summarize the data analysis by using the mean average of the scores. The mean is the average of the scores and will be calculated by adding up all the yes/no responses and dividing that total by the number of scores and the standard deviation will measure the variability and include every score in the calculation. By using the mean average and standard deviation the researcher will be able to appropriately analyze the research question-“ What are the experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of third graders towards bullying in the Academic Interdisciplinary Academy ?” .
Bullying in Schools 23
Inferential statistics will be used to analyze the data for the research hypothesis and null hypothesis is inferential statistics. By use of inferential statistics the researcher will be able to generalize to the population of individuals based on information obtained from a limited number of research participants. The statistic type t test will be used to either show a relationship or show a difference in the relationship of the two variables stated in the research hypothesis-“ Third grade students who have experienced bullying will have a negative perception and attitude towards bullying than those who have not experienced bullying”(H1:µ1<µ2 ). The null hypothesis also requires a test of significance type, the t test will also be used to reject or not reject the null hypothesis- “There is no significant difference in the attitudes and perceptions of third graders who have experienced bullying than those who have not experienced bullying” (H0:µ1 = µ2).
Summary of Research Procedure The study will be conducted at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy School during the students recess scheduled time. An approval letter will be presented to the principal of Academic Interdisciplinary Academy to obtain informed consent to conduct the study with participants on campus. Academic Interdisciplinary Academy does not require an informed consent letter to be completed by parents, as long as students names are not used in the study. The researcher will take the appropriate steps to reduce biases by utilizing all of the third grade classes at Academic Interdisciplinary Academy so that all of the student demographics will be represented in the study. The researcher is aware that by reflecting their own personal thoughts, experiences or attitude towards bullying when conducting the study, runs a possible threat to the validity of the study. In compliance with the Academic Interdisciplinary Academys policy of confidentiality, PVAMU IRB and Bullying in Schools 26 other relevant organizational research policies, the researcher will inform participants that even though their names will be known by the researcher, they will not be used in the analysis of the data.
In order to increase participant’s response to the survey the researcher will orally read the questionnaire to the forty participants, this strategy will increase student participation and response to the selected questions. A new self-developed questionnaire was not proposed for this study. The researcher will include the instrument used for this study in the appendix of the hard copy.

Bullying in Schools 27
REFERENCES
ABC-Above/Beyond Committee (2005). Climate Survey Spring 2005. The student and staff interactions perceptions of safety in their school. www.aliefisd.net. Retrieved October 4, 2006, from District Description and History Web site: http://www.aliefisd.net/district_info.htm www.district.mtv80.org. Retrieved September 21, 2006, from Mount Vernon Student Services Web site: http://www.district.mtv80.org/studentservices/Bullying.htm
Banks,Ron.(1997).BullyinginSchools.ERICDigest[Online].Available:http://npin.org/library/pre1998/n00416/n00416/html
Canter, A., Cohn, A., (2003) Bullying: Facts for Schools and Parents, National Association of Psychologists, 171-175,
Gay, L.R., & Airasian, P (2003). Educational Research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education. www.houstonisd.org. Retrieved on October 7, 2006 from Houston Independent School District Web site:http://www.houstonisd.org
Health Resources and Services Administration (2003). Retrieved September 21, 2006 from Stop Bullying Now: Health Resources and Services Administration Web site: http://www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov www.jmu.edu. Retrieved on September 17, 2006 from The Virginia Effective Practices Project: Intervention Strategies Web site: http://www.jmu.edu/csiat/vepp
Limber, S., P, & Nation, M., M., (1998). Bullying Among Children and Youth .In (Ed.) Juvenile Justice Bulletin.
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National Bullying Prevention Campaign’s Health and Safety Organization (2004). Preventing Bullying: The Role of the Public Health Professional Web site:http://www.childrensSafetyNetwork.org
National Crime Prevention (2003). School Violence Web site: www.nationalcrimepreventioncouncil.com
National Education Association (2005). National Bullying Awareness Campaign Web site: http://www.nea.org.
National Institute of Health(2000).Bullying Web site: www.nih.gov
National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center (2001).Teen Facts-Bullying Web site: http://www.safeyouth.org
Prevent Child Abuse: North Carolina (2003). Bullying Web site www.preventchildabusenc.org
Second Step (2005) A Violence Prevention Curriculum Web site: http://www.modelprograms.samhsa.gov/pdfs/Details/SecondStep.pdf
Texas Education Agency (2002). No Child Left Behind Web site: http://tea.state.tx.us
US Dept. of Health and Human Services (2003). Bullying Prevention Initiative Web Site:http://www.hhs.gov

References: can also include abusive text messages or emails, being ignored or left out, and being attacked or abused because of religion, gender sexuality, disability, appearance or ethnic or racial origin (Canter, &amp; Cohn 2003). In the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center article (2001), Olweus details an approach that involves interventions at the school, class, and individual levels Chapter II: Review of Literature Bullying is a very widespread problem in our schools and communities (Canter, &amp; Cohn 2003) Bullying in Schools 11 every seven minutes (“Bullying”, 2003) Practices Project (“Intervention Strategies”, 2005) reports that student bystanders suffer decreased self esteem because they are afraid to defend the victim or report incidents to adults. (Health Resources and Service Administration, 2003). Teens who bully are more likely to engage in other antisocial/delinquent behavior (e.g., vandalism, shoplifting, truancy, and drug Bullying in Schools 14 use) into adulthood. They are four times more likely than nonbullies to be convicted of crimes by age 24, with 60 percent of bullies having at least one criminal conviction (Canter, &amp; Cohn 2003).

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