Bio 224L Wed. 9:30-10:50
There are many different factors that can affect urine including volume, urine concentration, and pH levels. Factors that affect urine volume are fluid intake and reabsorption, which affects the amount of urine released. Urine concentration is measured by the concentration of dissolved solids present in a person’s urine, which is affected by water intake levels as well as diet (the amount of sodium in person’s diet). The pH scale has a range of normal, acidic, or basic. Acidic urine occurs when the pH scale is low, possibly caused by taking too many acidic drugs, like aspirin, or it can be basic, meaning the pH scale is high which could be due to an illness including heavy vomiting or diarrhea, causing the body to not have enough acids in the urine. These factors are all very different, but are interconnected because an imbalance in any of these factors can lead to imbalances in other areas as well (Wise, 2010). The importance of this lab is to analyze factors that may affect urine concentration, pH, and rate of production (flow rate) though multiple scenarios over a period of 60 minutes. My hypothesis for the urine analysis experiment is that the urine volumes will increase because of the increase of fluids to the body for groups 1 and 3, in comparison with the control group (group 4), and decrease in the group not group 2 based on the excess absorption of fluid caused by the increase of sodium. I also hypothesize that the rate of production will be greater than the control group (group 4) in the groups 1 and 3 and remain unchanged for group 2. The pH scale will remain constant for groups 1, 2 and be more acidic for group 3 due to the additional citric acid contained in soda when compared with the control group.
In this experiment, the BIO 224L classes were broken in 4 groups; group 1: drank water; group 2:...
References: Moller, Eggert, McIntosh, J.F., and Van Slyke, D.D (1928). “Studies of Urea Excretion II: Relationship Between Urine Volume and the Rate of Urea Excretion by Normal Adults” Journal of Clinical Investigation 6(3): 427-465.
Wise, E. (2010). Laboratory Manual Saldin Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (5th ed.). New York, NY, United States of Amercia: McGraw-Hill.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document