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For the movement associated with William F. Albright and also known as biblical archaeology, see Biblical archaeology school. For the interpretation of biblical archaeology in relation to biblical historicity, see Historicity of the Bible and List of artifacts significant to the Bible.
Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament (Tanakh) or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions. The principal location of interest for this branch of the archaeological sciences is what is known in the relevant religions as the Holy Land, which from a western perspective is also called the Middle East. Even though the main reference points of biblical archaeology are mainly theological and religious, the study of these references is a methodical science. The scientific techniques used are the same as those used in general archaeology, such as excavation and radiocarbon dating among others. In contrast, the archaeology of the ancient Middle East simply deals with the Ancient Near East, or Middle East, without giving any especial consideration to whether its discoveries have any relationship with the Bible.
Biblical archaeology is polemical as there are a number of points of view regarding the nature of its purpose and aims, and what these should be. A number of points of view from important archaeologists are included in the section on Expert Commentaries.
2 Biblical archaeology
5 Periods in biblical archaeology
6.1 Stages in the development of biblical archaeology
7 Schools of thought in biblical archaeology
8 Brief summary of important archaeological sites and findings
8.1 Selected discoveries
8.2 Objects with unknown or disproved
References: Jump up ^ Kurt Benesch: Past to discover cited by J.M. Vernet in his "Curso Básico de Arqueología Bíblica", Teologado Salesiano Internacional de Ratisbonne, Jerusalén, 2001 (in Italian). Jump up ^ J.M. Vernet, "Basic Course in Biblical Archaeology ", International Silesian Theologate of Ratisbonne, Jerusalem, 2001 (in Italian), p. 5 Jump up ^ Mills and Bullard, 1990, p Jump up ^ Bruins, Hendrik and van der Plicht, Johannes. "Tell-es-Sultan (Jericho): Radiocarbon results of short-lived cereal and multiyear charcoal samples from the end of the Middle Bronze Age." Radiocarbon vol.37, no.2, 1995, p. 213-220. Jump up ^ Pius XII (30 September 1943). "Divino Afflante Spiritu Encyclical Of Pope Pius Xi On Promoting Biblical Studies". Retrieved 6 February 2013. Jump up ^ Originally in Biblical Archaeology Review, May–June, 1995, p. 33 and quoted in web article Two Jigsaw Puzzles, Two Purposes, United Church of God Canada , viewed 6 February 2013. Jump up ^ Archaeology & the Patriarchs, Robert I Bradshaw, 1992, web article, Biblical Studies.org.uk . Jump up ^ Bible gets a reality check, MSNBC, Alan Boyle Jump up ^ The Bible 's Buried Secrets, PBS Nova, 2008 Jump up ^ Dever, William G. (March–April 2006). "The Western Cultural Tradition Is at Risk". Biblical Archaeology Review 32 (2): 26 & 76. Jump up ^ Dever, William G. (January 2003). "Contra Davies". The Bible and Interpretation. Retrieved 2007-02-12. ^ Jump up to: a b http://www.middleeastmonitor.org.uk/news/middle-east/2705-senior-israeli-archaeologist-casts-doubt-on-jewish-heritage-of-jerusalem Jump up ^ Did the Red Sea Part? No Evidence, Archaeologists Say, The New York Times, April 3, 2007 William F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940) Anati E Chapman, and J.N. Tubb, Archaeology & The Bible (British Museum, 1990) Cornfeld, G.and D.N Davies, P.R., In Search of 'Ancient Israel ': A Study in Biblical Origins, Sheffield (JSOT Press, 1992). Davis, Thomas, Shifting sands: the rise and fall of Biblical archaeology (2004) Dever, William G., "Archaeology and the Bible : Understanding their special relationship", in Biblical Archaeology Review 16:3, (May/June 1990) Dever, William G. (2002). What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-2126-X. Dever, William G. (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-0975-8. Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001), The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology 's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, New York: Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2338-1. Frend, William Hugh Clifford, The Archaeology of Early Christianity. A History, Geoffrey Chapman, 1997. ISBN 0-225-66850-5 Frerichs, Ernest S Hallote, R. Bible, Map and Spade: The American Palestine Exploration Society, Frederick Jones Bliss and the Forgotten Story of Early American Biblical Archaeology, (Gorgias Press, 2006) Discusses American involvement in biblical archaeology before 1900. Herzog, Ze 'ev (October 29, 1999), Deconstructing the walls of Jericho, Ha 'aretz. Keller, Werner, The Bible as History, 1955. Lance, H.D. The Old Testament and The Archaeologist. London, (1983) Mancini, Ignazio Mazar, A., Archaeology of the Land of the Bible (The Anchor Bible Reference Library, 1990) Mykytiuk, Lawrence J Mykytiuk, Lawrence J. (2009),"Corrections and Updates to 'Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200-539 B.C.E., ' " Maarav 16/1, pp. 49–132. Negev, Avraham, and Gibson, Shimon, (eds.) (2003). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York, NY: The Continuum International Publishing Group. Ramsey, George W. The Quest For The Historical Israel. London (1982) Robinson, Edward (1856) Biblical Researches in Palestine, 1838–52, Boston, MA: Crocker and Brewster. Schoville, Keith N. Biblical Archaeology in Focus. Baker Publishing Group, (1978). Thompson, J.A., The Bible And Archaeology, revised edition (1973) Wright, G Yamauchi, E. The Stones And The Scriptures. London: IVP, (1973).