Throughout American history, a number of battles come to hold iconic positions in the shaping of this great nation: Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Alamo, Gettysburg, Belleau Wood, Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima and the Battle of the Bulge, just to name a few. When the Spanish-American War of is thought of, the Battle of San Juan Hill undoubtedly comes to mind. Americans think of the great sacrifices throughout the fight. They think of Teddy Roosevelt charging up San Juan hill, leading his Rough Riders to a miraculous victory. They remember this all-American combination of valiant cowboys, Ivy Leaguers, Pawnee Scouts, polo players and New York City policemen (Roosevelt, 1999).
The Spanish-American War was “A Splendid Little War,” shaped by the xenophobia of the yellow press methods of William Randolph Hearst and others. This misinformation drove the community and the politicians to command that a hesitant President McKinley go to combat to boot the unkind Spanish out of Cuba, and to “Keep in mind the Maine” (Azoy, 1961). It was obviously an elective combat and despite the fact that we approved a commandment that we would not take possession of Cuba, we broke up with the Spanish settlements of the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam (Roosevelt, 1999).
The names of San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill were given to these battles in the aftermath of this short-lived war. In this battle 760 Spanish army men were prearranged throughout the "San Juan Heights" region in preparation of an American attack on July 1, 1898. For indistinct causes, Spanish General Arsenio Linares failed to support this point, choosing to grasp nearly 10,000 Spanish reserves in the city of Santiago (Jeffry, 1996, p. 313).
Spanish top of hill entrenchments, while characteristically well-concealed, were not all appropriately located for plunging fire, making return fire at the going forward Americans more
Cited: Azoy, Anastasio C.M. Charge! The story of the battle of San Juan Hill. New York: Longmans, 1961. Cosmas, Graham A. An Army for Empire. Shippensburg: White Mane Publishing, 1994. Dierks, Jack Cameron. A Leap to Arms: The Cuban Capaign of 1898. Philadelphia & New York: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1970. Frank N. Schubert, Black Valor: Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898 (Wilmington, Del., 1997), p. 109. Hillman, Rolfe L. ""America 's first rapid deployment force: the 9th Infantry Regiment."." Command (May 1996): 40-54. Jeffry D. Wert, Custer: the Controversial Life of George Armstrong Custer (New York, 1996), p. 313; Jones, Virgil Carrington Killblane, Richard E. "Assault on San Juan Hill." Military History (June 1998): 38-45. Morris, Edmund. The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1979. Paul H. Carlson, “Pecos Bill”: A Military Biography of William R. Shafter, 1989. Rayford W. Logan, The Betrayal of the Negro, from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson (New York, 1965), p. 335. Robert Wooster, Nelson A. Miles and the Twilight of the Frontier Army (Lincoln, Neb., 1993), p. 74. Roosevelt, Theodore, The Rough Riders (Da Capo Paperback). (New York: Charles Scribner 's Sons, 1920). This is a reprint of Roosevelt 's classic edition. 1999 Roosevelt, Theodore Walker, Dale L. The Boys of 98; Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders. New York: Forge, 1998.