Historical Investigation Case study: Babylonian Civilization
One of the most enthralling cities, still surrounded by mystery through the ages of the ancient world would be that of Babylon. Known for its tremendous size, beauty, culture, wealth and its advanced standard of civilization, that still intrigues historians to this day.
Focal Question 1: What were the roles played and the status achieved by women in Babylon? The Babylonian woman's role and status has always been very strictly defined. It adamantly consisted of her as the daughter of her father or the wife of her husband. Women seldom acted as individuals outside the context of their families, those who rarely did however, were of royalty or the wives of men who had the most power and status amongst society. In addition to a highly distinct social hierarchy in a patriarchal society, women too had status dependent on the role they played. Women who came from the wealthy and influential sector of society had statues made and placed in temples; this was done so that their images were in constant prayer and assisted in defining them as the women who held the highest status. New mothers and pregnant women were greatly regarded and received higher rations and privileges. The mother, the nurse and the physician all received higher rations if a boy was delivered, receiving almost twice the amount of mothers of baby girls. If a wife failed to bear children to her husband, it was regarded as a serious predicament, and in usual situations resulted in a maidservant given the role of bearing the husbands children, if the maidservant produced a child however it was received as the wife's child. Under no circumstance would the maidservant be considered as an equal with the wife. Women had the opportunity to own land, and run small services eg, from certain amounts of wheat their husband grew they were allowed to bake bread and sell it, it however was vigilantly watched over by the dominating male in the woman's life. Strict law codes in regard to these occupations were always adhered to, and they remained as an added chore, one of which was not the most prominent in the woman's life. Women's main expectance was that of house keeping and childbearing, this was the task and main role the majority of women Babylon undertook.
Focal Question 2: What Religious beliefs and Rituals did the Babylonian People have? Details of the religion and religious practices undertaken in Babylon have been well preserved by many classical writers and in parts of The Old Testament. From these sources alone, enough remains for the definite assertion that Babylonian religion was poly theistic and "strongly marked by features associated with fertility cults" (H.W.F Saggs, "The Babylonians") These ideas have been augmented and much clarified through materials including epics, myths, hymns and ritual instructions which further lead to the Babylonians belief in magic, as a result today historians struggle to draw a clear line of the Babylonians belief in magic and religion and the distinction between the two. Their was the strong ideology amongst all Babylonians that they saw themselves surrounded by constant supernatural forces, ranging from their gods to demons, the belief that the individual played the primary role in the gods or demons actions forced their daily routines to revolve around the pleasing of the gods, eg " if the gods were unhappy, that was the result of the drought, sacrifices and offerings were made
when the rain did eventually come it was the belief that they were forgiven" P.Mann "Deeper Understandings of Ancient Times" To the primitive Babylonian all natural forces were the result of supernatural powers that controlled their human existence. Babylonian religion was always temple centered, hence the gradual arising of the Pantheons due to the amalgamation of all deities. Elaborate festivals and rituals were undertaken here under the guidance of priests, the exorcist...
Bibliography: Last Modified: July 22, 2006
The Story Of Religious Controversy by Joseph McCabe
H.W.F Saggs (1981)
H.W.F Saggs (1981). The Babylonians. Oxford University Press: London
P.Mann ( 1997) Deeper Understandings of Ancient Times
Bible History Online, Last Updated 2004
H.W.F Saggs (1981) The Babylonians
Esmond Wright (1979) The Ancient World. Hamylyn Publishing Group Limited, Chartwell Books inc, A division of: New Jersey
H.W.F Saggs (1981) The Babylonians. Oxford University Press: London
Chris Scarre (1993) Timelines of the Ancient World
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