Autobigraph of Malcom X
African-American History, HIST 2450
In 1971, a psychologist by the name of William E. Cross, Jr, released his Black identity model. It's a model with the purpose of theoretically explains the process in which African Americans develop their cultural identity. There are five stages in which are the pre-encounter, encounter, immersion, internalization, and finally the internalization-commitment stage. In each stage there is something different that is developed to make someone certain that they are indeed in those stages. Using this psychology of “Blackness” this essay will assess the course of Malcolm X’s life and evolving view on questions of racial identity and justice through the lens of William E. Cross’s Nigresence Model using “The Autobiography of Malcolm X, as told by Alex Haley”. I am a true believer that Malcolm went through each stage in his life.
Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little to Louis and Earl little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska; His mother, Louis Norton Little, was a housewife that tended to the family's eight children. His father, Earl Little a reverend, a Baptist minister and a dedicated organizer for Marcus Garvey’s U.N.I.A. With this being said I believe that Malcolm X was born into the Pre-encounter Stage in which this stage Limited consciousness of self as “other.” Malcolm is Earl’s seventh and lightest-skinned child. He is the only son who escapes Earl’s beatings and gets to follow his father to UNIA meetings. Malcolm’s mother, Louise Little, is a fair-skinned, educated woman from the island of Grenada. She was conceived when her father, a white man raped her mother. I believe that although Malcolm had first sight on what was happening around him in his life, he didn’t get treated the same as others nor did he look like his other brothers and sisters.
It was 1929, when the little moved to Lansing, Michigan, a white