Far Eastern University
(A Project in SPED6)
Submitted by: Nicole Pouline N. Camson
Submitted to: Ms. Karen Montemayor
Specific Strategies for Gross Motor Assessment
There are several reasons for assessing the gross motor competence of young children. The identification of a discrepancy between age-expected performance and actual performance is the first step in determining whether intervention is necessary and is imperative if services are sought under early intervention and preschool legislation. However, the assessment should do more than merely identify disparity. It should provide the evaluation team sufficient information to establish functional goals and objectives to facilitate motor development. In addition, it should allow one to hypothesize causes for identified motor delays, and it may provide information that will help to explain other areas of delay.
Gross motor assessment may occur as part of an interdisciplinary team-based assessment or may occur as a “specialty” evaluation. In the case of the interdisciplinary team, evaluation may be accomplished by a group of professionals, each assuming responsibility for specific areas of function. Depending on the child’s perceived needs, the evaluation may occur in an arena format, a core format, or with separate appointments by one discipline the home, school, or clinic.
Professionals who perform team evaluations often use measures that allow assessment across many domains of functions. Examples of these broad-based assessments that might be used to evaluate young children include: Bayley II (Bayley, 1993) and the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (Aylward, 1995) Battelle Developmental Inventory (Newborg, Stock, Wneck, Guidubaldi, & Svinicki, in press) Infant-Toddler Developmental Assessment (Provence, Erikson, Vater, & Palermi, 1995) Early Intrvention Developmental Profile (Rogers et al., 1981) Hawaii Early Learning Profile (HELP; Furuno et al., 1984)
The HELP is designed for children from 0 to 3 years of age and; the HELP for Preschoolers Assessment Strands, Charts, and Checklists (VORT Corporation, 1995) were designed for children 3 to 6 years of age. These assessments provide information on a child’s functioning in self-care, gross motor, fine-motor, cognitive, and social and emotional development.
In some settings in which a transdisciplinary approach is used and discipline-free goals are developed, a team-based contextual evaluation may be preferred such as: Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment (Linder, 1990)
When concerns exist in the gross motor areas, the motor specialist on the team may conduct a more in-depth evaluation. Some assessments designed specifically to measure development of gross and fine motor skills include: Peabody Developmental Motor Scales II (Folio & Fewell, 2000) For children from birth through 5 years
Toddler and Infant Motor Evaluation (Miller & Roid, 2002)
Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency for Children (Bruininks, 1978) For children who are at least 4 ½ years of age
In addition to using assessments that measure gross motor performance, occupational and physical therapists may use standardized and criterion-referenced assessment tools and qualitative measures to assess components of motor skills and sensory processing.
There are a number of measures designed primarily to gather information about a child’s ability to process sensory information; these provide supplemental information and do not take the place of an assessment of gross motor performance. The Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (Dunn, 2002) and the Sensory Profile (Dunn, 1999) For children aged 3 and above
Use a questionnaire format to provide information about a child’s sensory performance DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory Integration (DeGangi & Berk, 1983) Designed to measure postural control, bilateral motor...
Hooper, Stephen R. & Umansky, Warren (2004). Young Children with Special Needs (4th Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
Guiliani, G.A. & Pierangelo, R. (2002). Assessment in Special Education: A Practical Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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