Artillery - Essay

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Topics: Artillery
Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of large projectiles during war, served by a crew of men. The term also describes ground-based troops with the primary function of manning such weapons. Artillery is sometimes known as "The King of Battle". This term includes coastal artillery which traditionally defended coastal areas against seaborne attack and controlled the passage of ships, using their ability to deny access through the threat of coastal fire. It also includes land-based field artillery. With the advent of powered flight at the start of the 20th Century, artillery also included ground-based anti-aircraft batteries.
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* 1 History * 2 Modern artillery * 3 Field artillery system * 4 Types of artillery o 4.1 Organisational types o 4.2 Equipment types o 4.3 Calibre categories * 5 Artillery ammunition o 5.1 Fuzes o 5.2 Projectiles o 5.3 Propellant * 6 Modern artillery operations o 6.1 Application of fire o 6.2 Counterbattery fire * 7 Types o 7.1 Sub-types o 7.2 Field artillery team o 7.3 MRSI o 7.4 Time on Target o 7.5 Airburst * 8 References * 9 See also * 10 External links

[edit] History

The word as used in the current context originated in the Middle Ages. It comes from the Old French atellier meaning "to arrange", and attillement meaning "equipment". From the 13th century an artillier referred to a builder of any war equipment, and for the next 250 years the sense of the word "artillery" covered all forms of military weapons.

Older engines like the catapult, onager, trebuchet and ballista are artillery (see siege engines for more information on pre-gunpowder devices), but the first documented record of artillery with gunpowder propellent used on the battlefield is on January 28, 1132 when

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