Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a three and a half inch long tube of tissue that extends from the large intestine. No one is absolutely certain what the function of the appendix is. Appendicitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt surgery to remove the appendix. Left untreated, an inflamed appendix will eventually burst or perforate, spilling infectious materials into the abdominal cavity. This can lead to peritonitis that can be fatal unless it is treated quickly with strong antibiotics. Many cases of appendicitis require removal of the inflamed appendix by laparotomy or laparoscopy due to the high mortality associated with the rupture of appendix, which may lead to severe complications such as peritonitis. CAUSES
Primary obstruction of the appendix increases the pressure within the lumen which causes thrombosis and occlusion and stasis of lymphatic flow which in turn causes infection due to bacteria. As bacteria begins to leak out through the dying walls, pus forms within and around the appendix. The end result of the cascade is appendicular rupture causing peritonitis which may lead to septicemia and eventually death. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Dull pain in the navel or the upper abdomen that becomes sharp as it moves to the lower right abdomen. Anorexia (Loss of appetite).
Nausea and vomiting soon after abdominal pain begins.
Fever of 990 to 1020F
Constipation or diarrhea with gas.
Signs includes localized finding in the right iliac fossa.
AURA- ROZANOVA sign : The abdominal wall becomes very sensitive to general pressure also there is a severe pain on sudden release of deep pressure in the lower abdomen DUNPHY’S sign: Increased pain in the right lower quadrant with coughing. PSOSAS sign: It is right lower quadrant pain that is produced with either the passive extension of the patient’s right hip. The increased pain is due to...
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