➢ Climate is weather conditions of a region like temperature, humidity, precipitation, sunlight pressure, winds, throughout the year over a period of time ➢ Ecology – is the study of the interactions between organisms and the environment ➢ Abiotic factors –temperature and water
➢ Microclimate – a classification at the small scale variation ➢ Dispersal – movement away fro origin
➢ Macroclimate – a classification at the global and regional level ➢ Parasitism – organisms like bacteria that enter a host, living organism where a parasite may live ➢ Competing – Two species compete with another species for resources such as food, water, or territory ➢ Biomes – major types of ecosystems that occupy very broad geographic regions. ➢ Photic zone is where there is enough light for photosynthesis to occur and an aphotic zone, where very little light penetrates. ➢ Benthic zone - is located at the bottom of the biome ➢ Oligotrophic lakes are deep lakes that are nutrient-poor and oxygen-rich and contain sparse phytoplankton. ➢ Eutrophic lakes are shallower, and they have higher nutrient content and lower oxygen content with a high concentration of phytoplankton. Marine biomes
➢ The intertidal zone, where land meets the water, is periodically submerged and exposed by the twice-daily tides. ➢ The Predation – Certain species hunt on other species or in some cases, Thermocline is not really a zone but more a layer which is very narrow that separate a warm upper layer of water and cold deeper waters ➢ Freshwater biomes (standing bodies of water and moving bodies of water) ➢ In lakes, the littoral zone a coral reef is a biome created by a group of cnidarians that secrete hard calcium carbonate shells, which vary in shape and support the growth of other corals, sponges, and algae ➢ A savanna is a field with grasses and some trees. The dominant herbivores are insects such as ants and termites. Fire is the dominant abiotic factor and many plants are adapted for fire. ➢ Plant growth is substantial during the rainy season, but large grazing mammals must migrate during regular seasons of drought. ➢ A desert is a biome with sparse rainfall. Desert plains and animals are adapted to conserve and store water. ➢ The Desert contains many CAM plants and plants with adaptations that prevent animals from consuming them, such as cacti. ➢ Chaparral is dominated by dense, spiny, evergreen shrubs. ➢ Tropical forests have pronounced vertical stratification. The canopy is so dense that little light breaks through. These forests are marked by epiphytes, which are plants that grow on other plants instead of the soil. Rainfall is varied. Biodiversity is greatest of all the terrestrial biomes. ➢ Tundra is marked by permafrost with very cold temperatures, high winds, and little rainfall. Tundra supports no trees or tall plants. It’s about 20% of Earth’s terrestrial surface. ➢ Population Ecology - individuals of a single species living in the same general area. ➢ Dispersion - the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population ➢ Density - the number of individuals per unit area or altered by emigrations births, deaths, and immigration
➢ clumping - most common pattern, with individuals in patches, usually around a required resource. Plants and fungi would be clumped where soil conditions and other environmental factors favor germination and growth. Clumping of animals may be associated with mating behavior and so and so forth. ➢ Uniform - often the result of antagonistic interactions. Organisms that defend territories often show a uniform pattern. ➢ Random Demographic transition - The movement toward a low birth rate and low death rate population ➢ unpredictable dispersions- is not common spacing in nature, as there is usually a reason for a pattern of spacing. ➢ Predation - As prey...
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