Psychology was born in the 1800s, stemming from the foundation of philosophy. Psychology was dominated by men during this time, and it wasn’t until the late 1800s early 1900s that women began to emerge in this field of study. While there are several women who contributed to psychology, Anna Freud made a significant impact to the field as a child psychologist. Anna Freud
Anna Freud, daughter of Sigmund Freud, was born December 3, 1895 in Vienna, Austria. Anna’s mother had decided not to breast feed Anna and left for vacation shortly after her birth. Anna was the youngest of six, and grew up spending most of her time with her father, Sigmund. In addition to her father, Anna was cared for by the Nanny. It was noted that the Nanny favored Anna most out of the children. Many times Anna was left with her father while the rest of the family left on day trips. This inevitably caused a rift with her siblings and contributed to her closeness to her father. At the age of 14, Anna was introduced to her father’s work of psychoanalysis ("Anna Freud," 2010). Anna attended school, but stated later in life that she gained most of her knowledge through the teachings of her father and his colleagues (Cherry, para. 4, n.d.). The Beginning
Anna graduated school at the age of 17 and went to live with her grandmother. It was during this time that it was speculated she was anorexic. In June of 1914 Anna passed the exam to become an apprentice teacher, and 1915 successfully passed the teaching exam. Anna began her career as an elementary schoolteacher at a primary school in Vienna. In 1918 Anna traveled to Hungry to experiment with a form of teaching called Project Teaching ("Anna Freud," 2010). Her constant interactions with children sparked her interest in child psychology. She soon left teaching and began working for her father as a secretary, where she became his pupil. In 1922 she became a practicing analyst. It was during this time she was appointed chairman of the Vienna Psychological Society, and served as such from 1925-1928 ("Freud, Anna (1985-1982)," n.d.). Throughout her years of teaching, Anna was courted and courted men, but her father’s dislike kept her from ever pursuing anything serious. In fact, she never married and never had children of her own. Career Milestones
During World War II, Anna accompanied her father to London for safety. It was here that she formed the Hampstead Nursery for children along with Dorothy Burlington. Here she was able to focus on providing a psychoanalytic program and a home for homeless children. Her experience at the nursery gave her inspiration to write three books, Young Children in Wartime, Infants without Families, and War and Children. In her book, War and Children and Young Children in Wartime, Anna discussed the importance of keeping children important even during times of war. It discusses the need to repair damage caused by war to children’s physical and emotional wellbeing (Freud & Burlingham, 1943, p. 11). In her book, Infants without Families, continues to demonstrate the importance of family interaction through documented encounters with children who are orphaned. Anna discusses how children need a well balanced life during the first five years of their lives (Freud & Burlingham, n.d.). Theories and Practice
Anna’s interactions with children helped her pioneer and develop psychoanalytic theory and practice in relation to children. Many believe that her poor relationship with her mother caused her to take her father’s theory a step further. Anna believed that children could not be treated with the same analysis as an adult is. She believed that children should be given allowances for his or her unique developmental stages and fluid individuality. She encouraged “reality-based and practical application of educational methods for both parents and children” ("Anna Freud," n.d.). Anna argued that there was a danger in over-interpreting children’s movement and expression...
References: Anna Freud. (2010). Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Encyclopedia Brittanica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219843/Anna-Freud
Anna Freud [Student Paper]. (2010) ( Women 's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society, Ed.). Retrieved from Webster.edu: http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/annafreud.html
Anna Freud. (n.d.) (Biography). Retrieved March 18, 2010, from About.com: http://www.answers.com/topic/anna-freud
The Anna Freud Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2010, from The Anna Freud Center: http://www.annafreud.org
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Anna Freud Biography (1895-1982). About.com(Psychology). Retrieved March 18, 2010, from http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_annafreud.htm
Freud, Anna (1985-1982). (n.d.). Retrieved from XRefer XML database.
Freud, A., & Burlingham, D. T. (1943). War and Children. New York: Medical War Books. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=901069
Freud, A., & Burlingham, D. T. (n.d.). Infants without Families. New York: Medical War Books. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6605560
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