How is the Surplus Created and Sustained? The Nile River is the main reason why this ancient civilization was able to grow and survive for around 2000 years. It was used to create a surplus, which could be managed and sustained for years and years. The Nile attracted visitors from a large area of Africa creating a “Cultural Melting Pot” (Lockard, 2011). The people of ancient Egypt were able to discover that the river flooded at exactly the same time each year, which allowed them to irrigate their fields and crops. Farmers planted their crops in the muddy flats, which allowed for good crops almost each and every time. The people of Egypt settled along the river from the Mediterranean Sea down to Aswan, approximately 750 miles apart (Lockard, 2011). Egyptian writing (hieroglyphics) was created and only strengthened the surplus as this allowed communication between people and the kingdoms.
Who Controls the Surplus? The pharaohs in ancient Egypt times were considered to be the rulers of all the land and people in Egypt. The pharaoh governed a centralized city of Memphis, which was strategically placed along the Nile. Egypt was divided into around 40 different areas that were run by a governor appointed by the king. Along with the governor, a chief
References: Lockard, Craig A. "Ancient Societies in Africa and the Mediterranean, 5000-600 B.C.E." World. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2011. 50-56. Print