World History Chapter 1 Summary

Good Essays
World History Notes: Chapter One
Intro
In 1849, William Loftus founded the ruins of the city of Uruk, one of the first cities in the world. Loftus found this ancient city in a part of Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was one of the first places where civilization began.
The First Humans
The first civilizations began in Western Asia and Egypt. The way we determine how civilization came about is through science. Archaeologists find many signs of civilization in ancient ruins. No records were contained but scientists were able to find out what happened many years ago. The first humanlike creatures were hominids or Australopithecines. Hominids had the ability to walk upright and were the first to create stone tools. A new form of hominid was discovered
…show more content…
The first Mesopotamians were the Sumerians who had city-states. Sumerian cities were surrounded by a wall and used large supply of mud to their advantage. Many large buildings and structures were made of mud bricks. Sumerian cities had a theocratic government in which many priestly figures had great power. A temple was built to serve the priests and priestesses but soon kings came into play. Kings were the sole rulers of governments. Kings had full authority of armies and people. Farming was big in Mesopotamia and there were many different products of trade. Inventions like the wheel were made to make carrying good easier. Sumerian city-states had different social groups. Nobles were the highest in status then the commoners and then the slaves. Many city-states wanted to take control of others and started war with them. The most famous and successful leaders of these wars was Hammurabi. Hammurabi gained control of many city-states. Hammurabi was a fair leader who gave peace to his empire. After his death however, his empire collapsed due to weak kings and strong invaders.
Hammurabi’s code
Hammurabi had a code that he used to help rule his empire. The code said that people would be penalized for criminal offenses and he used the “Eye for an eye” system. His code also said that parents had to arrange marriages for their children and women were far less privileged. Adultery was also taken seriously. Men could sleep with
…show more content…
This form of writing was called cuneiform. The writings were written on sundried clay tablets. Writing brought about record-keeping and also posed as a new job for some people. Scribes were record keepers and probably some of the only people who weren’t alliterate. Besides writing, Mesopotamians also majored in math and sciences by using a mathematical system and constellations.
Egyptian Civilization
Egypt had a great advantage of being near the longest river in the world, The Nile River. The Nile helped with the cultivation of different sorts of crops. It had a good defensive system and did not pose many problems.
Old and Middle Kingdoms
The old kingdom was a period of time where kings would be in power and many Egyptian royal dynasties were ruled by them. Kings also had help in ruling. Viziers and Nomarchs helped govern lands and maintain peace in places. The middle kingdom was a golden age in which peace was brought. Pharoahs were in power at this time and they helped remain peace.
Socity and Economy
Ancient Egypt was hierarchical. The upper class consisted of the kinds and his nobles and priests. The merchants and artisans were under the upper class and they traded and produced different products. Most of the people were land owners but some were artisans and merchants.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Sumerian Civilization

    • 453 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Asia is the cradle of the earliest civilizations. Many early civilizations emerged here because of the fact that water was, and still is, abundant in the area. The Sumerian Civilization, the world’s earliest civilization in the world, emerged in Mesopotamia. They were the first people to invent a system of writing. This was cuneiform. Writing was made possible with the use of a stylus which was made of reed and with the use of this, Sumerians were able to write on clay tablets. Although cuneiform was used only by the ancient Mesopotamians, this led to the subsequent development of the modern writing system. Aside from cuneiform, the early settlers of Mesopotamia also invented the wheel which revolutionized transportation in the modern world. The Sumerians gave the world the ziggurats which served as the home and temple of the city-state’s patron god or goddess. The utilization of wind power by sea vessels was pretty evident in the discovery of sails. As previously stated, farming was the major way of living of the people then which is why with the invention of the plow, agricultural activities were made easier. Other inventions of the Mesopotamians are the water clock, the twelve-month calendar, the use of the principles of geometry, the sexagesimal system or counting by 60s which paved the way for the systematic division of time and the circle, and astrology and the 12 zodiac signs. They were also first ones to utilize bronze in making tools. Furthermore, the world’s first written law was drafted by Ur-Nammu. With the decline of Mesopotamia, other civilizations emerged in the Mediterranean. The Hitties first used Iron, which is more durable compared to bronze. Coins as a form of exchange was developed by the Lydians. The phonetic alphabet that we use now was made by the Phoenicians. (Boncan et al, 2010, pp.…

    • 453 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mesopotamia PERSIAN CHART

    • 1175 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Mesopotamia was made up of city-states. It was one nation as a whole, but each city-state had it’s own government and own set of laws. City-states could also conquer one another for power and more territory.…

    • 1175 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Egypt was the second and one of the greatest civilizations. It was centrally located in Northeast Africa and is still known by the same name. The geographical feature that most affected Egypt was the Nile River but was also affected by the huge amount of land available. The land of Egypt was separated between north and south…

    • 744 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Ancient Egypt is such an interesting and amazing society to study due to the various factors that allowed the city and population to thrive. The culture, quite different to other cultures around the world in ancient times, developed quite unique traditions, technologies and ideas. Small features of this society including aligning the 4 corners of the pyramids and being able to divide the year into 365 days makes it truly fascinating, The main reason that this society was able to thrive and be successful can be attributed to the great Nile River. Due to this people were able to settle which lead to the creation of a surplus, which could be sustained for around 2000 years.…

    • 1021 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mesopotamia and Egypt DBQ

    • 663 Words
    • 2 Pages

    The Egyptian civilization began to develop near to the Nile River. The Nile River provided the population food and water because of its location in a fertile area in the middle of the desert. Farming began developing along the Nile River around 5000 B.C. Egyptian civilization consolidated about around 3150 B.C. with political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, Narmer. Ancient Egyptians had a king but referred to him as a Pharaoh which was the most powerful person of Egypt. The pharaoh possessed the power of a god so he was considered the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people. The Pharaoh had two roles which were titled: “Lord of the Two Lands (Ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt)” & “High Priest of Every Temple (Gods on Earth)”. He was provided with own of land, collection of taxes, defense of Egypt, and also, creation of laws. As a God, he did rituals and built temples to honor gods. The huge pyramids built by the workers in Egypt where used as tombs to buried the kings (Pharaohs) with their possessions after death.…

    • 663 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    During this time, Egypt had many years of peace and stability and it's power reached it's height. Pharaohs had increased Egypt's trade and had huge monuments built for them.…

    • 1445 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Unlike Mesopotamia, the Egyptians discovered unity early in history. They saw unification of smaller units into single state by Menes, supposedly the first ruler. The king had to maintain ma’ta, which was to divinely authorized order of the universe. Egypt’s political system reflected importance of religion. The pharaoh, also known as king, was the heart of the government but not only just a king, but he was a god also. The “Old Kingdom” which lasted from 2100-2500 B.C.E, was the strongest and most powerful of all kingdoms. That is because only a few outsiders tried to challenge the power, economic prosperity and general rule. Their will as to what to do was the law. This is also the time when the first pyramids for tombs for the pharaohs, which was between 2600-2100 B.C.E. In the “Middle Kingdom” (2100-1650 B.C.E) Egyptians started to trade with their neighbors extensively and developed small, middle class officials and merchants. Kings were represented by officials, which were landed nobility that were specialized trained in writing and laws. Governors were appointed for different regions and responsible for supervising irrigation and public works. This good peace was ended when the Hysos (modern day Turkey) invaded Egypt. In the “New Kingdom” (1550-700 B.C.E) Hysos ruled for that century between the Middle and New Kingdom. After that ruling, they were defeated by the Prince from Thebes. The Hysosians married Egyptians when they were ruling but were seen as…

    • 1630 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Civilization first arose in egypt, mesopotamia, indus river basin, and china. Characteristics included cities, government, religion, writing, art, and social structure.…

    • 1522 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The beginning of all civilizations started with the migration of humans out of Africa. The hunters and gatherers inhabited almost every region of the world less than 15,000 years ago. The groups traveled around as nomads for hundreds of years. During that time, they developed tools such as axes, knives, and needles. Fire was also utilized as a tool. Spoken language developed during…

    • 905 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    The first civilization is found in Genesis 4:17 when Cain built a city, Enoch. Many different aspects of life developed in the city that Cain had built but none of it was pleasing to the Lord because men did not call on the name of the Lord (New International Version). We also see civilization reoccur when God sent the Flood to destroy the wicked world because Noah was the only righteous man. God allowed Noah to survive the Flood so that He could rebuild the world through Noah (Genesis 6-9, New International Version). Genesis 9:1 says, “Then God blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth” (New International Version). Noah rebuilt the earth and increased the population like God commanded him. Civilization was established in the world after the flood when God commanded in Genesis 11:7, “Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other” (New International Version). This was the beginning of new cultures and language like we have…

    • 1066 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    In Mesopotamia there were 4 classes of people. The Kings and Priests were at the top of the class. The Upper Class was the wealthy. The Lower Class was salaried for their work. The slaves were at the foot system. The kings and priests were very influential. The priests controlled the society because they owned most of the land, and a lot of. The Priests were over the schools and the libraries in their temples.…

    • 451 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Approximately 5000 B.C.E. cultivation rose from Mesopotamia, the modern day area of Iran and Iraq, and formed what is arguably the first example of human civilization. It rose upon the banks of the Tigris-Euphrates River, formed by a tribe known as the Sumerians. They were a collection of agriculturally based communities, which coordinated strongly to ease the hardship of farming.…

    • 266 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    When comparing their social aspects, both the Mesopotamian and the Ancient Egyptian society had well defined social classes. Cities made it easier for social distinctions in Mesopotamia and in Ancient Egypt. What was different when comparing social classes in these two societies was that in Mesopotamia, they had a series of urban kings. On the other hand, in Egypt they recognized the pharaoh…

    • 513 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    The Egyptian Civilization was a theocracy as they had a king thought to have a divine connection with the gods. Egyptians were a polytheistic peoples the worship many gods with two specific groups being the sun gods and land gods. The Egyptian religion was apart of everyday life and could be no other way, pleasing the gods was most important. The egyptian social class was God-king, nobles and priests,…

    • 511 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    In Egypt, there was a very strong centralized government, which resulted in government knowledge and influence in many needed aspects. For example, the Egyptian economy was more fully government-directed than Mesopotamia which had an independent business class. Because of its geographic location, the complexity in irrigating the Nile River resulted in government control. Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt had more peace and prosperity…

    • 628 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays