IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
Since long ago, agriculture has been associated with the production of basic food crops. At present agriculture, besides farming includes forestry, fruit cultivation, dairy, poultry, mushroom, bee keeping, arbitrary, etc. Today, marketing, processing, distribution of agricultural products etc. are all accepted as a part of modern agriculture. Agriculture plays a crucial role in the life of an economy. It is the backbone of our economic system. The following facts clearly highlight the importance of INDIA. 1. Source of Livelihood:
In India the main occupation of our working population is agriculture. About 70 per cent of our population is directly engaged in agriculture. 2. Contribution to National Income:
Agriculture is the premier source of our national income. According to National Income Committee, in:- 1960-61, 52% national income was contributed.
1976-77, contributed 42.2 per cent
1981-82, its contribution was 41.8 per cent.
2001-02, it contributed around 32.4 per cent
3. Supply of Food and Fodder:
Agriculture sector also provides fodder for livestock. Moreover, it also meets the food requirements of the people. 4. Importance in International Trade:
Agricultural products like tea, sugar, rice, tobacco, spices etc. constitute the main items of exports of India. 6. Source of Raw Material:
Agriculture has been the source of raw materials to the leading industries like cotton and jute textiles, sugar, tobacco, edible and non-edible oils etc. All these depend directly on agriculture.
9. Vast Employment Opportunities:
With the fast growing population and high incidence of unemployment the agricultural sector is significant as it provides greater employment opportunities in the construction of irrigation projects, drainage system and other such activities. 13. Basis of Economic Development:
The development of agriculture provides necessary capital for the development of other sectors like industry, transport and foreign trade. TYPES OF FARMING
It is also commonly called ‘slash and burn agriculture’. It is used in areas where Soil has low nutrient levels. An area for cultivation is selected and then it is burned so that the required nutrients for the crop to grow are maintained and biomass is converted to useful inorganic ash. Then nth chosen crops are sown. Then the land is given a period of rest called ’fallow’. Then the same process continues until the land is wearied of nutrients(i.e. about 5-6 yrs). This type of farming usually depends on the type of soil, rain and most importantly climatic conditions. It is done using primitive tools like hoe, hull, dagger, dao, etc. and requires a lot of labour. Such crops are not produced in a large quantity and farmers grow crops only to sustain their family with little or no intention of selling them. The famer does not use chemical fertilizers or modern inputs, thus the production is low. TRADITIONAL FARMING
Traditional farming represents the original method of farming. This type of farming uses extensive local knowledge and natural resources so that no harm is caused to biodiversity. Such farmers maintain soil fertility and prevent erosion of topsoil. There are many methods of traditional farming namely:- Nomadic Pastoralism
It is the practice of raising domesticated animals like goat, sheep, cattle, etc. All humans practicing this method live off entirely on animal products like fat, meat, milk, etc. These people are constantly in use of new grounds for their animals to feed. Mixed Sustenance Farming
This can provide a very stable farming platform, where plants and animals work together to support each other. The plant waste that cannot be used by humans is used as fodder for animals and their waste acts as natural manure. This type of farming is usually the most productive and sustainable compared to any other type. COMMERCIAL FARMING
It is a type of large-scale farming of crops to...
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