African Reaction to Colonialism Through Resistance and Collaboration
1.Chimurenga Resistance (Zimbabwe) 2. Battle of Isandhlawana 3. Maji-Maji Uprising (Tanganyika) 4. Battle of Adowa (Ethiopia) 5. Asante Resistance (Ghana) 6. Samori Ture 7. Libyan Resistance
Demands for Equity and Inclusion: The Inter-War Years
By the end of World War I, most of Africa had been effectively colonized. European colonialists had managed to quell the efforts by Africans to resist the establishment of colonial rule. The next two decades, the period historians call the inter-war years, were relatively quiet years in colonial Africa. This relative quiet, however, did not indicate that the colonized people of Africa were happy with colonial rule-that there was no opposition to colonialism.
During the inter-war years opposition to colonialism was expressed in one of the following forms:
Demands for opportunity and inclusion: Many Africans at this time accepted the reality of colonial rule but they did not accept the harsh discrimination and the lack of opportunity that was a central part of the colonial experience. Opposition to these aspects of colonialism was particularly strong among educated Africans. Educated Africans believed that "all humans are created equal." Discriminatory colonial policies and practice restricted economic opportunities and participation in the political process. During this period, educated Africans formed organizations to promote their interest for an end to discriminatory policies and for an increase in opportunities. However, these organizations had limited membership, and they did not make radical demands for the end of colonial rule. The South African National Congress and the West African National Congress (Nigeria/Ghana) are examples of elite African organizations. Religious opposition: A number of the early anti-colonial up-risings featured in the last section were led by religious leaders. The Chimurenga (Zimbabwe) and Maji-Maji